A method was developed to determine the probabilistic flood elevation curves for Savannah River Site facilities. To determine the frequency of complement factor H Y H and age related macular degeneration susceptibility gene 2 A69 S single nucleotide polymorphisms in patients with age-related macular degeneration AMD and in matched non-AMD controls in an Iranian population. Seventy patients with AMD and 86 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited and examined. The frequencies of both homozygous and heterozygous genotypes were significantly higher in cases than controls for both Y H and A69 S polymorphisms. Joint risk analysis considering both genes revealed a higher risk of AMD when polymorphisms were present for both genes.
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My thanks go to Dr Oriol Ventura for his support in the development of the prototypes that form part of the conclusions of this project. I would also like to say how grateful I am to Dr. Robin Clark for his advice on spectrometry and showing me around the Raman Laboratory at the Christopher Ingold Laboratory in London and to Dr Santiago Alvarez for our conversations on molecular structures.
My special thanks also go to Octavi Rofes for his suggestions in the latter stages of this investigation. I would like to express my gratitude to the artists Gustav Metzger, Matthew Ritchie and Daniel Palacios for personally authorising the publication of images of their work. Last, but not least, I would like to thank Jordi, for his questioning patience and support. Research into the work of contemporary theoretical physics led to the question, how does one visualize what cannot be seen?
The imperceptible nature of the hypothetical propositions of string theory opened up an exploration into what forms in the past have been given to invisible structures and what kinds of methods have been used to visualize them? I present a series of examples that reflect some of the direct and indirect methods used to instantiate invisible structures in the arts and the sciences.
These examples configure an eclectic atlas of visualizations that evidence the use of drawing, indexing and simulation to reveal imperceptible structures that are physical, temporal, recorded and invented. It considers some of the visual shifts in the interpretations of other cosmological models and the impact technological advances have had on the visualization of the micro-cosmos. My conclusion indicates that there are many ways to visualize what lies beyond the naked eye but that all involve human agency.
The findings point to the role tacit knowledge and context play in the fabrication of visualizations of invisible structures. It highlights the historical specificity of visualization practices and the importance aesthetics play in both the arts and sciences. I conclude that to visualize invisible structures is to weave an intricate web of fact and fiction. But the elaboration of these visualizations can facilitate understanding and offer insights into otherwise imperceptible phenomena.
In compliance with the rules for the presentation of a doctoral thesis in a language other than Spanish or Catalan certain chapters have been translated into Spanish. To maintain the flow the two languages have been kept separate. The original version written in English precedes the four chapters that have been translated into Spanish. The four chapters in Spanish are, the Introduction, the first and fourth chapters and the conclusion.
Blurring the Boundaries. Examples of Exemplification. Repetition - Kurt Schwitters, Jackson Pollock. Milne, J. Mas III 22 [Acrylic on canvas, 40 x 40cm]. Watercolour and transferred printing ink on paper, bordered with gouache and ink, Perrin, J.
Dalton, J. Russell for G. Wilson, London. Kendrew, J. Bryon, R. Photograph courtesy of Charles Supper Company. Richardson, J. Ritchie, M. Sekiya, S. Crum Brown, A. Crowfoot Hodgkin, D.
Perutz, M. Chladni, E. Metzger, G. Runge, F. Ramon y Cajal, S. Houghton, G. Palacios, D. Descartes, R. Euler, L. Wright, T. Trouvelot, E-L. Bottom Slices combined to form composite of dark matter. Astronomical Illustration, Hubblesite. Massey Calif. Dillon Weston, c. Bentley, W. Milne, J, String analysis, [Post-it and string]. Milne, J, String analysis, [Post-it and string] Fig.
These images play a major part of our daily life. They inform the way we see and comprehend the world. These visualizations reveal hidden structures, universal or eternal forms, and entities or forces that lie beyond the naked human eye. They respond to a human urge to speculate about what might lie beyond the horizon.
It is one that has drawn me to experiment with the visualization of superficially invis- ible structures within my artistic research. One of the aims of this investigation was to consider methodologies and methods used to visualize invisible structures.
The impetus was to discover whether any of these methods could be used to develop a series of artistic representations based on the cosmological propositions associated with string theory in the work of contemporary theoretical physics. The cosmological propositions associated with string theory are the result of math- ematical calculations that have resisted, until now, empirical proof. My introduction to these propositions through the writings of Brian Greene , , and , Leonard Susskind and Michio Kaku , , and triggered questions about how the multiverses and hidden dimensions they described could be instantiated.
String theory proposes the world is built up of an infinite number of miniscule oscillating filaments. These filaments are curled up tightly within hidden dimensions, and it is only through the vibrations of subatomic particles that their existence can be inferred. These oscillating strings currently resist perception and sci- entists describe such propositions, with mathematical formulae, computer simulations, and met- aphor. Greene , p. Michio Kaku explains the hidden dimensions of the multiverse by relating it to the unknown dimensions experienced by a coy carp when lifted from its pond pp.
String theory is a hypothetical proposition there is at present no physical evidence to prove it. It has no form, and it is the imperceptible nature of these propositions that drew me to them. I wanted to attempt to lend form to the images suggested by my readings. One of the main aims of this research is accordingly to interpret the invisible architectures and multiple di- mensions suggested by the fields explored by contemporary physicists.
The aim is not to prove the veracity of string theory, as that obviously does not lie within my capabilities, so much as offer points of departure for its consideration. Questions surrounding what form the visualization of string theory should take made me look at the forms that had been given to other types of invisible structures. These questions evolved into a consideration of the methods used to visualize them. I wanted to see whether any of these methods could be developed into artistic representations.
To respond to these questions I have looked at the forms in which invisible structures are visu- alised, the methodologies surrounding their development, and the methods used. I have experi- mented with some of the methods identified and developed several of them into a series of artis- tic representations that serve as my conclusions to this investigation.
Background This project originates in painting. It has arisen from and is based on my practice as an artist. My interest in visualising what is superficially invisible has previously led me to experi- ment with the visualization of invisible structures in different forms. I have related these invis- ible structures to questions of space and the rhythms of sound and sequencing. In an early series of Pianola paintings, from , I transcribed musical scores into paintings, using the ca- dences of the notes as visual patterns.
In paintings such as La Lisonjera , fig. In a later series of paintings, from I worked with the reiteration of Jacquard loom cards and hotel key-cards to generate paintings from binary sequences. Paintings such as The Last Card of Sr. Mas, , fig. An intrinsic feature of these investigations was the slippages in translating binary technologies into paint. The aim was to create a dialogue between analogue and digital forms of production.
A Arte Expositiva de João Calvino
Energy conservation in electric drives: a practical approach with applications in a steel lamination; Conservacao de energia em acionamentos eletricos: uma abordagem pratica com aplicacoes numa laminacao siderurgica. The goal of this work is to propose a method to save energy in electrical drives by exploiting latent potentialities of the equipment. So, a significant reduction of energy consumption may be obtained through inexpensive measures. Although the examples here studied are directed to equipment of Plate Mill at COSIPA works, the analysis methodology is not restricted to steelmaking plants, being applied to any other industrial activities. Was adopted a practical approach, highlighting maintenance viewpoint and focusing their responsibilities in energy saving practices. Systematics of coal acquisition in Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao; Sistematica de aquisicao de carvoes na Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao. This work presents the systematics adopted by several Brazilian metallurgic companies for the the acquisition and transportation of imported coal.
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