AVIBACTERIUM PARAGALLINARUM PDF

Infectious coryza IC or snot is an infectious upper respiratory disease affecting chickens and birds, including quails, and it is caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum. The symptoms of IC are facial swelling, malodorous nasal discharge, and lacrimation. This study aimed to isolate, identify, and serotype the A. Nine quails from Yogyakarta, Indonesia with typical snot disease symptoms were used in this study.

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The disease is characterized by a swelling of the face, inflammation of infra orbital sinuses and conjunctivae with clear or purulent discharge from the nostrils in the acute stage of the disease Blackall et al. In many parts of the world, IC has become a major problem that affects all ages of chickens of both indigenous native chickens and laying hens in poultry farms. As early as , Beach believed that IC was a distinct clinical entity.

The aetiological agent eluded identification for a number of years, as the disease was often masked in mixed infection, and with fowl pox in particular Blackall et al. DeBlieck isolated the causative agent and named it Bacillus hemoglobinophilus coryzae gallinarum Blackall et al. Elliot and Lewis and Delaplane et al.

Based on studies conducted during the s, the causative agent of IC was classified as Haemophilus gallinarum because its requirement for both x- haemin and v- nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NAD factors for growth Beach and Schalm, ; Blackall et al. Page found that all isolates recovered from cases of IC required only v-factor for growth. This led to the proposal and general acceptance of a new species, Haemophilus paragallinarum Zinneman and Biberstein, for an organism requiring only the V-factor.

Following a phenotypic and genotypic investigation of the taxonomy of H. Chickens are primarily affected, although the disease has occasionally been reported in pheasants and guinea fowls Charlton et al.

All ages of chickens are susceptible. The disease is seen more frequently on intensive chicken farms, especially on large-scale egg production complexes and breeding farms Charlton et al. On farms where multiple age groups are brooded and raised, spread of the disease to successive age groups usually occurs within weeks after birds are moved from the brooder house to growing cages nearby to older groups of infected birds.

Chickens are the natural host for A. IC does not occur in turkeys Blackall et al. Indigenous domestic native fowls, sometimes referred to as village chickens are also susceptible to A. IC is a disease of economic significance in many parts of the world.

It is likely that IC has a worldwide distribution. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status.

Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. There is frequently a catarrhal conjunctivitis and subcutaneous oedema of face and wattles. Essential change in the nasal cavity, infra orbital sinuses, and trachea consisted of sloughing, disintegration and hyperplasia of mucosal and glandular epithelia, oedema, and hyperaemia with heterophil infiltration in the tunica propria of the mucous membranes.

Pathologic changes first observed at 20 hours reached maximum severity by days after infection, with subsequent repair occurring within 14 days. In birds with involvement of the lower respiratory tract, acute catarrhal bronchopneumonia was observed, with heterophils and cell debris filling the lumen of secondary and tertiary bronchi; epithelial cells of air capillaries were swollen and showed hyperplasia, catarrhal inflammation of air sacs was characterized by swelling and hyperplasia of the cells, with abundant heterophil infiltration.

In addition, a pronounced infiltration of most cells was observed in the lamina propria of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity.

The products of most cells, heterophil, and macrophages may be responsible for the severe vascular changes and cell damage leading to coryza. A dissecting fibrinopurulent cellulitis similar to that seen in chronic fowl cholera has been reported in broiler and layer chickens.

In infectious coryza, lesions were confined to the upper respiratory tract Reid and Blackall, ; Droual et al. Diagnosis is based on recognizing the clinical signs, postmortem findings, and bacteriological examinations of the suspected causal agent leading to isolation, and identification of the causative agent.

In susceptible chickens the symptoms first appear about hours after exposure to infection. The disease affects the upper respiratory tracts of chickens Yamamoto, The disease occurs in growing chickens and layers. The typical symptoms are a swollen face and sinuses with a clear discharge progressively becoming purulent. There is marked conjunctivitis and in some cases the eyes are partially or completely closed, and lacrimation results in an inability of the chicken to eat and drink.

Infection may involve one or both sinuses. Affected chickens have variable size of swelling of the infraorbital sinus and face, nasal discharge, difficulty in breathing and coughing. In layers infection causes a drop in egg production; in broilers there may be an increased need to cull birds Bains, Consistent lesions associated with IC are acute catarrhal inflammation of the nasal passage and sinusitis. In chronic cases, an accumulation of 'cheesy' material in the infraorbital sinus may be present Bain, ; Droual et al.

Ideally, the isolation and identification of the causative bacterium is used to confirm a diagnosis of infectious coryza. The methods used include examination of the satellite phenomenon with a feeder culture of Staphylococcus epidermidis or Staphylococcus hyicus , biochemical tests, fermentation tests of carbohydrates, and serological tests Page, ; Blackall and Reid, ; Poernomo et al.

A polymerase chain reaction PCR test, which can be applied either to suspect colonies or directly to samples from chickens, is available Chen et al. Although most isolates of A. This variation in growth factor requirements, along with the existence of non pathogenic v-factor-dependent organisms, highlights the need for biochemical identification or the use of the new generation PCR test; serotyping of isolates is an important guide in the use of vaccines Blackall and Yamamoto, A range of serological tests to detect antibodies have been described Blackall et al.

Many different media have been developed to support the growth of A. Specimens should be taken from two or three chickens in the acute stage of the disease. A sterile cotton swab is inserted deep into the sinus cavity where the organism is most often found in its pure uncontaminated form.

Tracheal or air sac exudates may also be taken on a sterile swab. Staphylococcus epidermidis or S. At the simplest level, IC may be diagnosed on the basis of a history of a rapidly spreading disease in which coryza is the main manifestation.

A smear of sinus exudates should be made and Gram stained. It should reveal Gram-negative bipolar-staining rods with a tendency toward filament formation and pleomorphism and combined with the isolation of a catalase-negative bacterium showing satellite growth.

Another efficient diagnostic procedure is to inoculate the sinus exudates or culture into two or three young normal chickens by the infraorbital sinus intra sinus. The typical signs and lesion associated with coryza may develop in hrs or longer days ; however, the incubation period may be delayed up to 1 week if only a few organisms are present in the inoculum Blackall et al. Better equipped laboratories should attempt a more complete biochemical identification; serological tests for serotyping of A.

Chickens that have recovered from active infection of coryza develop varying degrees of immunity. Pullets that have experienced IC during their growing period are generally protected against a later drop in egg production. Resistance to re-exposure among individual birds may develop as early as 2 weeks after initial exposure by the intrasinus route. Oral administration of doses of 10 10 cells of attenuated A. IC must be differentiated from chronic respiratory disease, chronic fowl cholera, fowl pox, and hypovitaminosis A, which produce similar clinical signs.

One should consider the possibility of other bacteria or viruses as complicating factors, particularly if mortality is high and the disease takes a prolonged course Blackall and Yamamoto, The principle lesion manifested by A. Infiltration of a large number of most cells into the lamina propria of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity is also characteristic.

Numerous organisms are found on the cilia or on the surface of the epithelial cells of the nasal mucosa. Chickens with the lesions often have severe coryza. Adherence to and colonization of the encapsulated variant on the nasal mucosa seems to be a first step of infection Sawata et al. Colonization of the nasal mucosa by encapsulated A. Acute uncomplicated coryza is characterized by a short duration, with signs usually clinically visible for days, and subsequently results in birds being refractory to reinfection.

Chronic disease is usually found in complicated coryza and in this case clinical signs can persist for a month and longer. Chronic coryza can be produced experimentally, by creating a combined infection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and A.

IC may occur in growing chickens and layers. There is usually a rapid onset and morbidity is high in the flock, decreased feed and water consumption, retarded growth in young stock and reduced egg production in laying flocks. The most common clinical signs are nasal discharge, facial swelling, lacrimation, anorexia, conjunctivitis with some adherence of eyelids, respiratory noise, swollen infraorbital sinuses and exudates in the conjunctival sac, occasionally diarrhoea Blackall et al.

There has been a recent emergence of disease in meat chickens in the USA and a swollen head-like syndrome associated with A. Additionally, arthritis and septicaemia, possibly complicated by the presence of other pathogens, have been reported in broiler and layer flocks in South America Sandoval et al.

A foul odour may be detected in flocks in which the disease has become chronic and complicated with other bacteria Blackall et al. The disease is observed primarily during the autumn and winter months in subtropical climates, or during the rainy season in a tropical climate. All age groups of chickens are susceptible, but the disease appears to be more severe in birds of 4 weeks old and upwards. The presence of disease in growing birds may result in poor growth, and reduced egg production.

Chronic or apparently healthy carrier birds have been recognized as the main reservoirs of infection. Spread within a flock is rapid via contact with infected birds, through ingestion of contaminated feed or water, and by the airborne route.

Recovered birds are frequently carriers. No mechanical or biological carriers vectors have been demonstrated. The organism does not survive longer than hours in the environment outside its hosts Anon.

Susceptible birds exposed to infected birds may show signs of the disease within hours Rimler et al. Chickens inoculated with cultures of A. IC is often regarded as a disease that has its greatest impact in intensively raised chickens. In Indonesia, the disease was formerly not considered to be widespread in village chickens. However the isolation of A. Various sulfonamides and antibiotics have been used to treat IC, usually in feed or drinking water.

Birds usually respond to treatment but relapses may occur when treatment is discontinued. Many drugs and antibiotics have been used, including streptomycin, erythromycin, sulfodimethoxine, tylosin tartrate and spectinomycin Charlton et al. It should be noted that sulfa drugs may cause a temporary drop in egg production and overdoses may be toxic.

Similarly, streptomycin causes severe stress in chickens, which can last for 24 hours Bains, Erythromycin and oxytetracycline are two commonly used antibiotics Blackall et al. Other antibiotics found effective in the treatment of IC include norfloxacin Lublin et al.

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