Your input will affect cover photo selection, along with input from other users. Ahmadinejads kritikk og tildels harde verbale utfall overfor USA har blitt tolket som at han vil USAs globale hegemoni til livs. Ahmadinejad er regnet som en av hovedfigurene i denne partialliansen. Ved presidentvalget i Iran
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He was also the main political leader of the Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran , a coalition of conservative political groups in the country, and served as mayor of Tehran from to An engineer and teacher from a poor background,  ideologically shaped by thinkers such as Navvab Safavi , Jalal Al-e-Ahmad and Ahmad Fardid ,  Ahmadinejad joined the Office for Strengthening Unity  after the Iranian Revolution.
Appointed a provincial governor in , he was replaced along with all other provincial governors in after the election of President Mohammad Khatami and returned to teaching. During his presidency, Ahmadinejad was a controversial figure in Iran and other countries. He has been criticized domestically for his economic policies  and accused of disregard for human rights by organizations in North America and Europe.
In , Ahmadinejad introduced a gasoline rationing plan to reduce the country's fuel consumption and cut the interest rates that private and public banking facilities could charge. His election to a second term in was widely disputed   and led to widespread protests domestically and criticism from Western countries. During his second term, Ahmadinejad experienced a power struggle with reformers and other traditionalists  in parliament and the Revolutionary Guard and with Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei ,  over his dismissal of intelligence minister Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i and his support for his controversial close adviser, Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei.
On 12 April , Ahmadinejad announced that he intended to run for a third term in the Iranian presidential election , against the objections of Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was born on 28 October near Garmsar , in the village of Aradan , in Semnan province.
His mother, Khanom, was a Sayyida , an honorific title given to those believed to be direct bloodline descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. When Mahmoud was one year old, his family moved to Tehran. Mahmoud's father changed their family name from "Saborjhian"  or "Sabaghian" [c] to Ahmadinejad in to avoid discrimination when the family moved to the city.
Sabor is Persian for thread painter, [d] a once common occupation within the Semnan carpet industry. Ahmad was his father's name. The suffix Nejad in Persian means race, therefore the term Ahmadi Nejad means "the lineage of Ahmad". According to the interviews with the relatives of Ahmadi Nejad, his father who works in a small shop, sold his house in Tehran and bought a smaller house, giving the excess funds to charity and poor people.
In , Ahmadinejad took Iran's national university entrance examination. According to his autobiography, he was ranked nd out of , participants that year,  and soon enrolled in the Iran University of Science and Technology IUST , located at Tehran, as an undergraduate student of civil engineering. He would later earn his doctorate in in transportation engineering and planning from Iran University of Science and Technology as well, when he was the mayor of Ardabil Province, located at the north-west of the country.
Some details of Ahmadinejad's life during the s are not publicly known, but it is known that he held a number of administrative posts in the province of West Azerbaijan , Iran. Many reports say that after Saddam Hussein ordered the invasion of Iran, Ahmadinejad joined the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps  and served in their intelligence and security apparatus,  but his advisor Mojtaba Samareh Hashemi has said: "He has never been a member or an official member of the Revolutionary Guards", having been a Basiji -like volunteer instead.
Ahmadinejad was accepted to a Master of Science program at his alma mater in He joined the faculty there as a lecturer in ,   and in received his doctorate in civil engineering and traffic transportation planning. After the Islamic Revolution , Ahmadinejad became a member of the Office for Strengthening Unity ,  an organization developed to prevent students from sympathizing or allying with the emerging militant Mojahedin-e Khalq organisation.
Ahmadinejad first assumed political office as unelected governor to both Maku and Khoy in West Azarbaijan Province during the s. The Council appointed Ahmadinejad mayor. As mayor, he reversed changes made by previous moderate and reformist mayors. He put religious emphasis on the activities of cultural centres they had founded, publicised the separation of elevators for men and women in the municipality offices,  and suggested that people killed in the Iran—Iraq War be buried in major city squares of Tehran.
He also worked to improve the traffic system and put an emphasis on charity , such as distributing free soup to the poor. After his election to the presidency, Ahmadinejad's resignation as the Mayor of Tehran was accepted on 28 June After two years as mayor, Ahmadinejad was one of 65 finalists for World Mayor in , selected from nominees, only nine of them from Asia. Ahmadinejad was not particularly well known when he entered the presidential election campaign as he had never run for office before, he had been mayor of Tehran for only two years and had been appointed, not elected ,  : although he had already made his mark in Tehran for rolling back earlier reforms.
Ahmadinejad was largely non-committal about his plans for his presidency, perhaps to attract both religious conservatives and the lower economic classes. In the campaign, he took a populist approach. He emphasized his own modest life, and compared himself with Mohammad Ali Rajai , Iran's second president.
Ahmadinejad said he planned to create an "exemplary government for the people of the world" in Iran. One of his goals was "putting the petroleum income on people's tables", meaning Iran's oil profits would be distributed among the poor. Ahmadinejad was the only presidential candidate who spoke out against future relations with the United States. Should such a privilege continue to exist, the Muslim world with a population of nearly 1.
In his second-round campaign, he said, "We didn't participate in the revolution for turn-by-turn government. This revolution tries to reach a world-wide government.
People should have freedom in their pilgrimages and tours. Ahmadinejad described Ayatollah Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi , a senior cleric from Qom , as his ideological and spiritual mentor. Mesbah founded the Haghani School of thought in Iran. Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei authorized his presidency on 3 August Shortly after Ahmadinejad was elected president, some Western media outlets published claims that he was among the students who stormed the US embassy in Tehran , sparking the Iran hostage crisis.
This claim has been denied by the Iranian government, the Iranian opposition, as well as an American investigation by the CIA.
Iran's President is constitutionally obliged to obtain confirmation from the parliament for his selection of ministers. The Majlis rejected all of his cabinet candidates for the oil portfolio and objected to the appointment of his allies in senior government office.
Ahmadinejad's team lost the city council elections. According to an editorial in the Kargozaran independent daily newspaper , "The results show that voters have learned from the past and concluded that we need to support.. On 23 August , Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei announced that he "sees Ahmadinejad as president in the next five years," a comment interpreted as indicating support for Ahmadinejad's reelection.
Ahmadinejad won 24,, votes, In second place, Mir-Hossein Mousavi , won 13,, The election results remained in dispute with both Mousavi and Ahmadinejad and their respective supporters who believe that electoral fraud occurred during the election. Former presidents Mohammad Khatami , and Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani , who was then head of the Expediency Discernment Council , along with opposition leader Mir Hossein Mousavi, did not attend the ceremony.
After taking the oath of office, which was broadcast live on Iranian state television , Ahmadinejad said that he would "protect the official faith, the system of the Islamic revolution and the constitution. Ahmadinejad announced controversial ministerial appointments for his second term.
Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei was briefly appointed as first vice president, but opposed by a number of Majlis members and by the intelligence minister, Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i. Mashaei followed orders to resign. Ahmadinejad then appointed Mashaei as chief of staff, and fired Mohseni-Eje'i. On 26 July , Ahmadinejad's government faced a legal problem after he sacked four ministers. Iran's constitution Article stipulates that, if more than half of its members are replaced, the cabinet may not meet or act before the Majlis approves the revised membership.
The main list of 21 cabinet appointments was announced on 19 August Inflation and unemployment also decreased under Ahmadinejad due to better economic management and ending the unsustainable spending and borrowing patterns of previous administrations.
He also initially refused a gradual increase of petrol prices, saying that after making necessary preparations, such as a development of public transportation system, the government would free up petrol prices after five years. One unintended effect of this stimulation of the economy has been the bidding up of some urban real estate prices by two or three times their pre-Ahmadinejad value by Iranians seeking to invest surplus cash and finding few other safe opportunities.
The resulting increase in the cost of housing hurt poorer, non-property owning Iranians, the putative beneficiaries of Ahmadinejad's populist policies.
Ahmadinejad publicly responded harshly to the letter and denounced the accusations. Current political conflicts with the United States caused the central bank to fear increased capital flight due to global isolation. These factors prevented an improvement of infrastructure and capital influx, despite high economic potential. President Ahmadinejad changed almost all of his economic ministers, including oil, industry and economy, since coming to power in In an interview with Fars News Agency on April , Davoud Danesh Jaafari who acted as minister of economy in Ahmadinejad's cabinet, harshly criticized his economic policy: "During my time, there was no positive attitude towards previous experiences or experienced people and there was no plan for the future.
Peripheral issues which were not of dire importance to the nation were given priority. Most of the scientific economic concepts like the effect of liquidity on inflation were put in question. At Iranian parliament, he also mentioned that he simply followed the president's order. While his government had thousand billion toman oil income, the highest in Iranian history, Ahmadinejad's government had the highest budget deficit since the Iranian revolution. During his presidency, Ahmadinejad launched a gasoline rationing plan to reduce the country's fuel consumption.
He also instituted cuts in the interest rates that private and public banking facilities could charge. In October , Ahmadinejad began calling for the scrapping of Iran's existing birth-control policies which discouraged Iranian couples from having more than two children. He told MPs that Iran could cope with 50 million more people than the current 70 million. In November , he urged Iranians to marry and reproduce earlier: "We should take the age of marriage for boys to 20 and for girls to about 16 and Ahmadinejad's call was reminiscent of a call for Iranians to have more children made by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in The policy had increased Iran's population by 16 million in seven years  : but had eventually been reversed in response to the resultant economic strain.
In , the government sent the "Family Protection Bill" to the Iranian parliament. Women's rights activists criticized the bill for removing protections from women, such as the requirement that a husband obtain his wife's consent before marrying a second wife. Women's rights in Iran are more religiously based than those in secular countries. Ahmadinejad's government said this fund would tap Iran's oil revenues to help young people get jobs, afford marriage, and buy their own homes.
The legislation was a response to the cost of urban housing, which is pushing up the national average marital age currently around 25 years for women and 28 years for men. In the Iranian parliament rejected the fund. However, Ahmadinejad ordered the administrative council to execute the plan. According to a report by Human Rights Watch , "Since President Ahmadinejad came to power, treatment of detainees has worsened in Evin Prison as well as in detention centers operated clandestinely by the Judiciary, the Ministry of Information, and the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.
The government routinely tortures and mistreats detained dissidents, including through prolonged solitary confinement. Responses to dissent have varied. Human Rights Watch writes that "the Ahmadinejad government, in a pronounced shift from the policy under former president Mohammed Khatami, has shown no tolerance for peaceful protests and gatherings.
In April , the Tehran police, which is under Khamenei's supervision, began a crackdown on women with "improper hijab. In , Ahmadinejad claimed that AIDS was created by the West in order to weaken poorer countries, and repeated a previous claim that homosexual Iranians did not exist.
In , the Ahmadinejad  government reportedly forced numerous Iranian scientists and university professors to resign or to retire.
Maduro grew up in a family of moderate means in Caracas, where his father was engaged in leftist politics and the labour movement. His own early interest in left-wing politics led Maduro to pursue training as an organizer in Cuba rather than a university education. While working as a bus driver in Caracas, he became a representative in the transit workers union and rose through its ranks. That year Maduro also served in the Chamber of Deputies the lower house of the Venezuelan legislature , which was eliminated when the legislature became the unicameral National Assembly, in which Maduro began serving in Maduro won the razor-close contest, capturing nearly 51 percent of the vote over just more than 49 percent for Capriles, who was quick to make allegations of voting irregularities and to demand a full recount. Instead, the National Election Council chose to conduct an audit of the ballots in the 46 percent of precincts that had not already been automatically audited under Venezuelan election law, though Capriles refused to participate in the audit and announced that he would undertake a legal challenge to the election results.
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