The short eBook provides readers with detailed, graphical-based information, highlighting only the key topics in cram-style format. With this document as your guide, you will review topics on concepts and commands that apply to this exam. This fact-filled Quick Reference allows you to get all-important information at a glance, helping you focus your study on areas of weakness and enhancing your memory retention of essential exam concepts. Jerome Henry is technical leader at Fast Lane.
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Like this document? Why not share! Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Engineering. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Wireless quick-reference 1. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by copyright. Please see page for more details. Jerome has more than 10 years of experience teaching technical Cisco courses in more than 15 countries and four different languages to audiences ranging from bachelor degree students to networking professionals and Cisco internal system engineers.
Jerome joined Fast Lane in Before then, he consulted and taught heterogeneous networks and wireless integration with the European Airespace team, which was later acquired by Cisco and became its main wireless solution. He is based in Cary, North Carolina. Denise has more than 11 years experience teaching technical Cisco courses in more than 15 different countries to audiences ranging from bachelor degree students to networking professionals and Cisco internal system engineers. Focusing on her wireless experience, Denise joined Fast Lane in She is based in the United Kingdom.
The first wireless transmission occurred in During the 20th century, analog communication became digital and proprietary solutions blossomed to transmit information over RF. To organize the use of the spectrum, an international agreement allowed several portions of the spectrum to be used without license for industrial, scientific, and medical ISM purposes.
Local regulations were created that forbade most segments of the RF spectrum for private use. Proprietary solutions moved to controlled bands paying a fee for the right to use the spectrum segment or to the ISM bands free, but with risks of interferences from other networks. Most of the protocols used today in wireless networks were defined after The wireless field is evolving every day, but its terminology and fundamental concepts are well established.
Wireless Networks and Topologies Wireless Network Types Wireless networks use different technologies depending on the distance to achieve, the number of devices to connect, and the amount of information to transmit.
Bluetooth is an example of WPAN protocol. WLANs are the main topic of this book. Applications vary from point-to-point or point-to-multipoint links to multiuser coverage. WMANs typically use licensed frequencies a fee has to be paid for permission to use the frequency , although implementations in the ISM bands can also be found.
Usually, WWANs are networks used for mobile phone and data service and are operated by carriers. WWANs typically use licensed frequencies. Wireless Topologies Two wireless devices in range of each other just need to share a common set of simple parameters frequency and so on to be able to communicate and establish a WLAN. A first station defines the radio parameters and a connection name; the other stations just need to detect the connection and adjust their own parameters to connect to the first station and to each other.
This is called an ad hoc network. Because ad-hoc networks do not rely on any device other than the stations themselves, the wireless network they form is called an Independent Basic Service Set IBSS.
They are sometimes called peer-to-peer wireless networks. Ad-hoc networks are limited in functionality because no central device is present to decide common rules radio parameters, priority, range, what happens if the first station disappears, and so on.
To organize the communication, most networks use a central device that defines common sets of parameters: the access point AP, also called AP-station in the Wireless devices send their signal to the AP, which relays the signal to the destination wireless station or the wired network. As such, the AP is a hybrid device, close to an Ethernet hub in concept: All stations share the same frequency, and only one station can send at any given time, forming a half-duplex network. An AP is more than a hub because it performs complex functions generates or relays frames, for example.
Because the client stations connect to a central device, this type of network is said to use an infrastructure mode as opposed to an ad-hoc mode. When a station moves, leaves the coverage area of the AP it was originally connected to, and gets to the BSA of another AP, the station is said to roam between cells. Neighboring cells are usually on different channels to avoid interferences. Wireless networks are designed to make neighboring cell detection and roaming seamless from the station standpoint.
For the station to detect that the neighboring AP offers the same connection as the previous AP, wireless network administrators use names to identify wireless connections. Note Ad-hoc mode was de- scribed in the original But ad hoc mode does not scale well, and later amendments Only 7. This way, stations on different SSIDs share the same RF space but are isolated from each other by different authentication and encryption mechanisms.
In a Cisco controller—based solution, APs attach to controllers. To achieve the same isolation as on the wireless space, the controller can map each SSID to a different VLAN before releasing the forwarded traffic to the wired side of the network. Specialized Devices Wireless networks also contain devices offering specific functions.
These devices are often access points with a specific firmware used to solve specific connection issues. APs can be configured to repeat the signal of another access point. This mode is called repeater, and is useful when you want to provide wireless coverage in areas that are too far to allow an Ethernet connection Ethernet cable length should not exceed m, or feet. Repeaters extend the range of the cell and usually reduce the throughput because the repeater must repeat each client signal to the AP.
Some repeaters have two radios one for the clients, the other to repeat the signal to the main AP and are called full-duplex repeaters. For the wireless infrastructure, the WGB can be seen as a normal wireless client this is called the universal workgroup bridge mode, and only one wired client can use the WGB in this mode or as a special client simply called workgroup bridge, which is a Cisco proprietary mode allowing several wired client connections.
APs can also be used to connect entire LANs; for example, two buildings over a campus. In this special configuration, the AP simply transmits the traffic coming from its wired port to another AP over a radio link, and vice versa.
The APs must be configured to accept this type of traffic, and are said to be in bridge mode. Bridges can sometimes also accept wireless clients. Some APs do not even connect directly to the wired network, and transmit wireless client traffic to other APs. In this configuration, a specific protocol is used for each AP to determine its possible paths to the wired network. This type of deployment is called a mesh network.
Paths through the mesh network can change in response to traffic loads, radio conditions, or traffic prioritization. RF Principles Wireless networks use radio waves to send information. You must know the basic principles of radio wave propagation to understand wireless networks. A radio wave is an electric and a magnetic field used to transport information. Radio waves typically use frequencies that the human body cannot detect.
Different waves have different sizes that are expressed in meters. Another unit of measurement, hertz Hz , expresses how often a wave occurs, or repeats, per second. A wave that occurs each second is said to have a frequency of 1 Hz.
A wave that occurs one billion times a second has a frequency of a gigahertz GHz. Lower-frequency signals are less affected by the air than high-frequency signals and travel farther.
Wireless networks use the 2. The 5-GHz band has slightly less coverage than the 2.
CCNA Wireless (640-722 IUWNE) Quick Reference
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