ERGONOMIA APLICADA AO TRABALHO HUDSON COUTO PDF

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Abstract The professional of education is exposed to working conditions that were not existing before the use of new technologies in the classroom projector, interactive whiteboard, computers, modern audio systems, etc.

This study aimed to evaluate the degree of fatigue of teachers who use modern resources in the classroom. Fourteen teachers from a language school participated in this research. They answered to a bipolar fatigue questionnaire indicating how they were fatigued at the end of the workday.

The professional of education is exposed to working conditions that were not existing before the use of new technologies in the classroom projector, interactive whiteboard, computers, modern audio systems, etc. Published by Elsevier B. Getulio Vargas 04, Sao Luis , Brazil. People live increasingly stressful situations due to the modern society, technological advances, the pressure of excessive consumption, increased competitiveness, the constant threat of unemployment and other day-to-day difficulties [1].

This also includes teachers, workers like everyone else, but little researched when considering working hours and conditions. The society and the educational system are in a period of widespread changes, especially in Brazil. These transformations are noticed occurring in all areas, with special attention to the technological advances of the electronic systems of communication and information, thereby the educational system has also changed its dynamics [2].

The professional of education is exposed to working conditions that did not exist, as the use of new technologies in the classroom projector, interactive whiteboard, computers, modern audio systems, etc.

On one side is the benefit of a more dynamic and interesting class, on the other, the risk of poor posture in handling these devices as well as visual and hearing fatigue. This study aimed to qualitatively measure muscle fatigue as characterization tool of interference in teacher's productivity using modern resources in their classes computer, data show, interactive whiteboard and home theater.

Didactic use of media in schools is a criticism to the necessary process of the educational system modernization based on the simple use of new technologies that seek to raise the same type of education to a greater degree of effectiveness and efficiency [2]. It is necessary the monitoring and the incorporation of evolution that occurs in the world of science, technique and technology, but also to cooperate to restore the balance of technological development of the individual so that he can keep up with an increasingly technological and digital world [3,4] considers that "the mastery of new technological interfaces becomes more essential day-after-day for the survival of the individual in society.

Most schools still retains their teaching as a speech using chalk, with students being mere listeners. The dynamics of the classroom where students and teachers are physically present also changes. The didactic activities encourage group work, in which the teacher becomes a participating member [2].

As the teacher participates into three or more groups per day, by the end of the working hours he may be fatigued, especially when new technologies are included in education.

Fatigue causes a reduction in performance and as a result, the increase in absences. Fatigue promotes a set of changes in the body resulting from physical or mental activities in excess that lead to feeling of tiredness [5]. Fatigue can be understood as an effect of continued work, which tends to cause reversible reduction of the body's capacity and a quality degradation of this work. It is caused by a complex set of factors whose effects are cumulative. There are physiological factors such as intensity and duration of physical and intellectual work; psychological factors such as monotony and lack of motivation; environmental factors such as inadequate lighting and excessive noise, besides organizational factors, concerning the relationship with the leadership and co-workers.

Through a certain degree of effort, being mental or physical, fatigue emerges, and the most common forms are, according to [6] the fatigue generated by the demand of the visual system Visual fatigue ; fatigue caused by physical demand of the whole organism general body fatigue ; mental fatigue; fatigue caused by the requirement of psychomotor functions Central Nervous System Fatigue generated by the monotony of work or the monotony of environment; the sum of prolonged stressful influences Chronic Fatigue Syndrome - CFS ; and the circadian fatigue, generated by the biological rhythm of the day-night cycle that takes place periodically and leads to sleep.

All forms of fatigue described above are determined by stressful circumstances. These situations may arise from light but continuous efforts or from a large brief effort that reduces the potential for different types of work. This situation is determined as degree of fatigue. It is important to distinguish between the object weight to be handled and the strength to handle it. The effect of the absolute weight of the object or of the manipulated tool depends on the position of the object or tool in relation to the body axis.

Depending on the arm positions, the manipulation of objects or lightweight tools may require significant efforts and increase the risk to the joints of the shoulder and elbow [7].

Working with video monitors can induce the development of a muscular tension that would lead to musculoskeletal pain round the neck and shoulders [8]. Fatigue becomes dangerous to health if:. Chronic fatigue is not relieved by sleep or breaks and it has a cumulative effect. It is characterized by boredom, annoyance, lack of initiative and progressive increase in anxiety. There is a possibility to cause diseases such as ulcers, mental and heart diseases. In this situation, resting is not enough to get recovered and medical treatment is recommended [9].

The visual requirements of the task can influence postural comfort. Corlett and Manenica [10] propose a diagram that divides the human body in various segments Figure 1 , facilitating the location in areas that employees feel pain. With this diagram, the job interviewer analyses workers at the end of a period of work, asking them to indicate the regions where they feel pain. Then they are asked to subjectively evaluate the degree of discomfort felt by each of the segments indicated in the diagram.

This study was conducted in a language school in the city of Imperatriz in Brazil, where all rooms are equipped with projector, home theater, notebook and interactive whiteboard. The study gathered all the teachers of the institution 13 and the survey was conducted in June, in two days: on Saturday in which teachers teach five hours with two breaks of ten minutes each; and on Monday, when there are classes in the morning, in the afternoon and in the evening, totaling an average of 8 hours of class with the last class ending at 9 p.

Data collection consisted of the application of an instrument to evaluate labor fatigue called "Bipolar Questionnaire" [11]. This is a simple method of subjective evaluation of fatigue in the workplace, originally developed in England by professor Nigel Corlett of Nottingham.

This instrument consists of fourteen questions, related to aspects such as: concentration, calmness, productivity, eye fatigue and pain in various body segments. Each of these aspects is placed side by side; one side expresses idea of positivity and the other, negativity. Then, between these opposing sides, there is a gradation from 1 to 7, where workers put a cross: the closer it is to number 1, the less is fatigue; the further it is, the more is fatigue.

It should be noted, then, that this research was done according to the worker sense of fatigue at the time of the interview. The questionnaire was applied in each teacher three times a day - in the beginning, in the middle, and in the end of the working day.

To better validate the results, another tool was used, known as Pain Diagram by Corlett and Manenica, that through the perception of the users, the body sites where they suffer a higher incidence of pain at the end of their working hours can be verified.

Results show in general the fatigue levels classified as: absence, moderate and intense, based on the questionnaire answered by the participants. Figure 2a shows moderate fatigue regarding the final part of the working day considering the level of tiredness, and even a high percentage of intense fatigue.

Thus it is possible to notice that all teachers had some degree of tiredness, with no occurrence of lack of fatigue for this item. Severe pain has not been reported for any of the participants. From Figure 6a it is observed that for the item leg pain, the number of respondents was similar for the three levels of fatigue. Importantly the number of people who reported intense degree is high, considering other items already studied.

This result may be due to the way that these employees are positioned to teach, getting their body weight on their feet for a high period of time.

This one was the item with the highest number of occurrence of intense fatigue. Most teachers did not show headache at the end of the working day Figure 7b , however those who reported headache accused intense degree, with no occurrence of moderate fatigue. The research related to pain in the arms, wrist, or hand showed no occurrence of discomfort, despite the fact that teachers work using interactive whiteboard pen, moving arms frequently.

Another item of great importance in the questionnaire was the use of painful areas diagram, as described by [1]. Through this diagram, regions that employees feel more pain normally could be observed.

When checking the average of the regions in the table below, the results show that the highest averages are related to regions surrounding the spine and the lower legs, as seen in the red items. It is believed that this is due to the fact that teachers work most of the time standing still, handling interactive whiteboard with a proper pen, providing a poor positioning of the spine and exhausting heft on the legs. From the results obtained, the conclusion is that the teachers that were interviewed still feel productive at the end of the working day, however, due to the resources they use and their posture when teaching, they showed a certain degree of fatigue, and in specific cases this fatigue may be intense.

This fact can be observed in the following items: tiredness, visual fatigue, pain in the neck and shoulder muscles, pain in the thighs, legs and feet, and headache.

The use of modern resources in the classroom is increasing, once the offered structure to students contributes to the dissemination of knowledge. It is up to the teacher to research and to adapt to these resources in order to promote education in the best possible way. Teachers are workers like everyone else and their working conditions must be subject of study. Thus a further ergonomic evaluation is necessary to develop and define parameters for the act of teaching, once the professional of education is directly responsible for all other existing functions.

Transinformajao, Campinas, V. Avaliajao Da Fadiga No. Porto Alegre: Bookman, Ergonomics, 34, Acesso Em 27 De Junho De Applied Ergonomics, N. Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Aline Leme, Ivana Maia Abstract The professional of education is exposed to working conditions that were not existing before the use of new technologies in the classroom projector, interactive whiteboard, computers, modern audio systems, etc.

Introduction People live increasingly stressful situations due to the modern society, technological advances, the pressure of excessive consumption, increased competitiveness, the constant threat of unemployment and other day-to-day difficulties [1]. Teaching methods and used resources Didactic use of media in schools is a criticism to the necessary process of the educational system modernization based on the simple use of new technologies that seek to raise the same type of education to a greater degree of effectiveness and efficiency [2].

Fatigue Fatigue causes a reduction in performance and as a result, the increase in absences. There are physiological factors such as intensity and duration of physical and intellectual work; psychological factors such as monotony and lack of motivation; environmental factors such as inadequate lighting and excessive noise, besides organizational factors, concerning the relationship with the leadership and co-workers Through a certain degree of effort, being mental or physical, fatigue emerges, and the most common forms are, according to [6] the fatigue generated by the demand of the visual system Visual fatigue ; fatigue caused by physical demand of the whole organism general body fatigue ; mental fatigue; fatigue caused by the requirement of psychomotor functions Central Nervous System Fatigue generated by the monotony of work or the monotony of environment; the sum of prolonged stressful influences Chronic Fatigue Syndrome - CFS ; and the circadian fatigue, generated by the biological rhythm of the day-night cycle that takes place periodically and leads to sleep.

Methods This study was conducted in a language school in the city of Imperatriz in Brazil, where all rooms are equipped with projector, home theater, notebook and interactive whiteboard.

Corlett e Manenica Diagram [1]. Results and discussion Results show in general the fatigue levels classified as: absence, moderate and intense, based on the questionnaire answered by the participants. Fatigue Difficulty Concentrating Fig. Nervous Impair Productivity absence moderate intense Fig. Visual Fatigue Pain in the neck and shoulder muscles 1 y absence moderate intense Fig.

Pain in the Legs Pain in the thighs Fig. Table 1. Mean - Painful Areas Diagram. Conclusion From the results obtained, the conclusion is that the teachers that were interviewed still feel productive at the end of the working day, however, due to the resources they use and their posture when teaching, they showed a certain degree of fatigue, and in specific cases this fatigue may be intense.

References [1] Iida, I. Ergonomia - Projeto E Produjao. Sao Paulo: Edgard Blucher, O Paradigma Educacional Emergente. Sao Paulo: Papirus. Applied Occupational Environmental Hygiene

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