The mahogany shoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella Zeller , bores into the twigs and seed capsules of trees in the mahogany family Meliaceae , especially mahogany species Swietenia spp. It is an important economic pest and has been the subject of concerted research efforts in several tropical countries. It is the only species of Hypsipyla in Florida, where it is a pest of West Indies mahogany Swietenia mahagoni Jacquin , a native tree that is frequently planted as an ornamental or shade tree in southern Florida. Figure 1.
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The mahogany shoot borer Hypsipyla grandella Zeller is an important economic pest in all American tropical forests, because it prevents monoculture of valuable timber trees species like mahogany and cedar. The shoot borer damages several tree structures, especially the apical shoots, impairing the formation of the commercial stem. This pest can attack the plants during the year and one larva per plant is enough to cause significant damage.
The Australian cedar and African mahogany have been cultivated in Brazil for timber production, because they are considered resistant to H. However, in this work we report for the first time the H. The forest species of Meliaceae family, native to Tropical America, is largely explored due to the high commercial value of its timber.
In Brazil, there are six genera and about species, highlighting Carapa , Cedrela and Swietenia. However, mahogany monoculture, along with other American Meliaceae, is impaired due to mahogany shoot borer Hypsipyla grandella Zeller attack Lunz et al. This shoot borer is a Lepidopteran that co-evolved with some Meliaceae species.
Mahogany shoot borer occurs in South America except Chile , Central America and South Florida and it follows the Meliaceae distribution pattern of which they feed Griffiths, ; Horak, This borer may attack several plant structures and its main damage involves the perforation of young branches, especially the apical shoot, causing tree bifurcation, significantly reducing the economic value of the timber.
This results in the reduction of plant growth and timber production Newton et al. The attacks are frequent since the initial phases of plant development, when the plants are more susceptible to infestation Ennion, This prevents the monoculture establishment of native Meliaceae. The monoculture of exotic species like Khaya spp. Roem in Brazil poses as an alternative to native Meliaceae for being resistant to H. It is estimated that there are producers that cultivate about 15 thousand hectares of Khaya ivorensis A.
Currently, K. Then, this work aimed to report the H. The region is under the Cerrado domain and has plain relief. The predominant soil is the Oxisol. The climate is tropical with dry season.
The average annual temperature is The apical shoots collected had cm in diameter with 24 borer holes. The branches were kept in cages until pupae formation. Six pupae were formed, four which were female, with two presenting atrophied wings. The taxonomist Victor O.
This is the first report of H. In spite of the incentives for planting exotic species of Meliaceae as an escape strategy to H. This pest is present in the field throughout the year Taveras et al. Once the plantation is invaded by insects, almost all trees are damaged Paul and Weber, , and the damage threshold corresponds to one caterpillar per plant Hilje and Cornelius, Brazil has the largest natural reserve of tropical native mahogany Swietenia macrophylla , which is the main host of H.
Thus, the shoot borer is present in almost all regions where Khaya sp. Few control strategies have been studied; however, no efficient control measures for mahogany shoot borer have been achieved Lunz et al. Studies have pointed out that some culture practices may reduce the damages such as pruning the affected branches and lateral shading Hilje and Cornelius, ; Opuni-Frimpong et al.
Hilje and Cornelius, and other shrubby crop species Paul and Weber, ; avoidance of shallow soils, with high acidity and deficient drainage Hilje and Cornelius, Several natural enemies of H. Nevertheless, these natural enemies cannot control effectively the populations of H.
Very likely, the increase in the selection pressure, exerted by extensive resistant monocultures may contribute to the reduction of resistance of Khaya ivorensis by H.
This fact has been reported in Hypsipyla robusta attacking the American mahogany Switenia macrophyla cultivated in Africa and Australia Newton et al. Further research must be encouraged concerning monitoring, pest control techniques, selection of new resistant materials and resistance management strategies, such as the use of structured refuge with susceptible materials. Agostinho, S.
Limonoids from Toona data and speculations on their chemosystematic and ecological significance. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology Azambuja, R. Comparative biology of Euschistus heros F. Hemiptera: Pentatomidae feeding on cotton and soybean reproductive structures.
Neotropical Entomology Cunningham, S. Patterns of host use by the shoot-borer Hypsipyla robusta Pyralidae: Lepidoptera comparing five Meliaceae tree species in Asia and Australia.
Forest Ecology and Management Ennion, R. Evaluation of four Taungya permanent big-leaf mahogany plots, aged 36 to 38 years, in Belize. In: Lugo, A. Big-leaf mahogany: genetics, ecology, and management. Griffiths, M. The Biology and ecology of hypsipyla shoot borers. In: Floyd, R. Hypsipyla shoot borers in Meliaceae.
Grijpma, P. Studies on shoot borer Hypsipyla grandella Zeller Lep, Pyralidae. Observations on egg parasite Trichogramma semifumatum Perkins Hym-Trichogrammatidae. Turrialba Heinrich, C. American moths of the subfamily Phycitinae. Bulletin of the United States National Museum Hilje, L. Hypsipyla grandella is uncontrollable as forest pest? Manejo Integrado de Plagas Horak, M. Taxonomy of Hypsipyla shootborers pests of mahogany red cedar an relatives.
Australian National Insect Collect Lunz, A. Hypsipyla grandella in Mahogany Swietenia macrophyla : current situation and perpesctives. Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira in Portuguese, with abstract in English.
Meloche, F. Eastward expansion and discovery of the soybean biotype of western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte in Canada.
Canadian Journal of Plant Science Navarro, C. Progeny test analysis and population differentiation of mesoamerican mahogany Swietenia macrophylla.
Newton, A. The mahogany shoot borer: prospects for control. Genetic variation in host susceptibility to attack by the mahogany shoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella Zeller.
Agricultural and Forest Entomology 1: Nickle, W. Mermithid parasites of agricultural pest insects. Journal of Nematology Opuni-Frimpong, E. Silvicultural systems for plantation mahogany in Africa: influences of canopy shade on tree growth and pest damage. Paul, C. Intercropping Cedrela odorata with shrubby crop species to reduce infestation with Hypsipyla grandella and improve the quality of timber. International Scholarly Research Notices Forestry Perez, J. Use of grafiting to prevent Hypsipyla grandella Zeller Lepidoptera: Pyralidade damage to new world Meliaceae especies.
Neotroprical Entomology Pinto, A. Brazilian Journal of Biology Stephens, K. Mahogany: which one is the real thing?
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