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This document contains information that is proprietary to Mentor Graphics Corporation. The original recipient of this document may duplicate this document in whole or in part for internal business purposes only, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies.

In duplicating any part of this document, the recipient agrees to make every reasonable effort to prevent the unauthorized use and distribution of the proprietary information.

This document is for information and instruction purposes. Mentor Graphics reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information contained in this publication without prior notice, and the reader should, in all cases, consult Mentor Graphics to determine whether any changes have been made. The terms and conditions governing the sale and licensing of Mentor Graphics products are set forth in written agreements between Mentor Graphics and its customers.

No representation or other affirmation of fact contained in this publication shall be deemed to be a warranty or give rise to any liability of Mentor Graphics whatsoever. Government Restricted Rights. Use, duplication or disclosure by the U. Government or a U. Government subcontractor is subject to the restrictions set forth in the license agreement provided with the software pursuant to DFARS Boeckman Road, Wilsonville, Oregon Telephone: No one is permitted to use these Marks without the prior written consent of Mentor Graphics or the respective third-party owner.

The use herein of a third- party Mark is not an attempt to indicate Mentor Graphics as a source of a product, but is intended to indicate a product from, or associated with, a particular third party. A current list of Mentor Graphics trademarks may be viewed at: www. Much improvement has been achieved in the IE3D since then. The IE3D has become the most versatile, easy to use, efficient and accurate electromagnetic simulation tool.

In the recent years, we have improved IE3D significantly. The AGIF flows simplify the model creation process significantly. By just one click, a user can build a complicated layout consisting of wire bonds, vias, ground and plane planes with thickness and solder balls, pin vias into some 3D models suitable for IE3D full-wave EM simulations. In IE3D Recent advancement in microwave, wireless, RF and semiconductor technologies require EDA imposes new challenging to circuit designers.

New development requires higher accuracy and reduced design cycles. The FastEM Design Kit allows users to get high accuracy full-wave designs done in real-time at design time. It significantly reduces the design efforts and improves the quality of high frequency designs. On IE3D, we have implemented automatic extraction and optimization of lumped circuit equivalent circuit from IE3D simulations. Full-wave EM tuning, optimization and synthesis require users to parameterize structures.

To simplify the parameterization process and enhance the capability of parameterization, we have further improved our schematic-layout editor, or the IE3Dlibrary. We have introduced equation-based geometry modeling in IE3Dlibrary On IE3Dlibrary V14, we have implemented guides for easy locating objects. We have also implemented different ways of high-lighting and accessing the objects to make IE3Dlibrary easy to use.

What are the major features of IE3D V 1 IE3D integrated design environment: We have integrated polygon layout editor, s-parameters visualization and post-processing, current distribution, near- field and far visualization into one single package, FastEM real-time EM tuning and optimization in one package. Users can do most of the design works in one single piece of the software.

The simulation results will be become unstable below some low frequency limit. The limit is structure dependent. On IE3D V14, we have implemented an advanced feature allowing accurate and robust simulation of structures down to 1 Hz. IE3D allows accurate simulation of high frequency structures.

It also allows users to shift the reference plane of an isolated port accurately and efficiently. This limitation makes design procedure less convenient for de-embedding of structure discontinuities. IE3D V14 has implemented accurate and automatic extraction of s-parameters with shift of reference planes for coupled and differential ports. Signal integrity applications require high performance EM modeling.

The implementation makes it easy for signal integrity designers to perform high quality EM simulations. The feature allows users use the capabilities to use any tools to parameterize structures.

IE3D V15 also implemented wire bond profiles for creation and modeling of wire bonds with different user definable profiles. This manual mainly serves as a tutorial manual. It demonstrates how the users can achieve the design goals thru many examples. Before we start the actual examples, we will provide a brief introduction in the theory. For those users we do not want to know the theoretical part of the IE3D, they can skip Section 1 to Section 3 of this chapter.

In fact, we also suggest those users who do not have much numerical simulation experience to delay reading the following sections until they get more knowledge from the next a few chapters.

Section 1. IE3D is a full-wave EM solver. It solves the Maxwell Equations, which govern the macro electromagnetic phenomenon. There is no much assumption involved except the numerical nature of the method. Therefore, the solution is extremely accurate. The original Maxwells Equations are in differential form and the solutions of the equations are the electric E field and magnetic H field in the whole space.

To solve an EM problem, we need to solve the E and H-fields numerically. Numerical solution of the original Maxwell Equations of E-field and H-field involves many unknowns. We try to represent the E-field and H-field as some weighted integrals of electric current on metallic structures and magnetic current derived from the electric field distribution on a metallic aperture.

For most practical circuit and antenna structures, the metallic domain is limited and the solution domain of the IE3D is very limited. A typical example is a microstrip circuit. The solution domain is just the surface of the printed strip only. Its solution domain is significantly smaller than that of the original Maxwells Equations.

Starting from the IE3D For 3D dielectric problems, we are unable to obtain the Greens functions meeting the boundary conditions on the 3D finite dielectrics.

We will need to mesh the 3D dielectrics and solve the equivalent current distribution inside the 3D finite dielectrics. For simplicity reason, our following discussion will focus on the formulation of electric current on metallic structures only.

The magnetic current formulation and the 3D dielectric formulation are similarly obtained and we will not provide detail here. For a general EM scattering problem, we assume a conducting structure in a stratified dielectric environment, as shown in Figure 1.

An incident field is imposed to the structure to induce current distribution on it. The induced current will create the secondary field to satisfy the boundary condition on the metallic structure.

For a typical highly conductive structure, the induced current is flowing on the conducting surface and the boundary condition is, Figure 1. G r r' satisfies the boundary conditions on the stratified dielectrics except the boundary condition on the conductor S.

The Green's function can be derived. The only unknown is the current distribution J r. A complete set of basis functions consists of infinite number of terms. Therefore, equation 6 is an infinite dimensional problem. Equation 6 is exact when the basis functions in equation 4 are a complete set. Unfortunately, we are unable to solve equation 6 analytically except some very special structure, due to the fact it is an infinite dimensional problem.

We can only get an approximated solution numerically by truncating the infinite series with finite number of terms. Mathematically, the truncation is a projection process. We project the actual solution in infinite dimensions to that of finite dimensions. If we choose the finite dimensions such that the major components of the actual solution are all in the finite dimensions, we should be able to obtain a very good approximation.

After the current distribution is solved, we can calculate the s-parameters, radiation patterns, RLC equivalent circuit of the structure, near field distribution and whatever other parameters of interest. The above method is also called moment method. All moment method or method-of-moment, MOM formulations, no matter simple or complex, take the form of equations 7 to 9.

The differences are on the choice of basis functions and the Greens functions. There are many choices for the basis functions and the dyadic Greens function. Consideration on the basis functions and the dyadic Greens function is mainly on accurate and efficient evaluation of the double surface integrals in 8. For general-purpose EM simulators, basis functions on a meshed structure are used. The matter is how we mesh the structure.

There are two types of meshing schemes in practical applications: 1 Uniform meshing; 2 Non-uniform meshing. Uniform meshing is simple and straightforward. It is required for those simulators using the FFT to calculate the double surface integrals in 8. For uniform grid based simulators, the layout is divided into a uniform grid. Then, a user draws a circuit as some polygons. Then, the uniform meshing scheme tries to fit the shape of a structure into the uniform grids shown in Figure 1.

If your structure cant be fitted completely into a uniform grid, you have two choices. One choice is to remove the portions cant be fitted and ignore them.

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