Johann Friedrich Herbart was a Ger man philosopher-psychologist and educator, noted for his contributions in laying the foundations of scientific study of education. Johann Friedrich Herbart was born on May 4, , in Oldenburg, the son of the state councilor for Oldenburg. He attended the University of Jena Upon graduation Herbart went to Interlaken, Switzerland, where he served as tutor to the governor's three sons. In Switzerland he met Johann Pestalozzi and visited his school at Burgdorf.

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His aims in this respect are expressed by the title of his textbook— Psychologie als Wissenschaft neu gegrundet auf Erfahrung, Metaphysik, und Mathematik, 2 vol.

The study of their interactions gave rise to a statics and dynamics of the mind, to be expressed in mathematical formulas like those of Newtonian mechanics. On this basis Herbart developed a theory of education as a branch of applied psychology. This step is presumed possible only if the student immediately applies the new idea, making it his own. Herbart maintained that a science of education was possible, and he furthered the idea that education should be a subject for university study.

His ideas took firm hold in Germany in the s and spread also to the United States. By the turn of the century, however, the five steps had degenerated to a mechanical formalism, and the ideas behind them were replaced by new pedagogical theories, in particular those of John Dewey. Johann Friedrich Herbart. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today.

Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Johann Friedrich Herbart was a contemporary of Froebel and other German Romanticists, but he can hardly be put into the ranks of such pedagogues. Hegelianism: Polemics during the life of Hegel: — In the latter part of the 19th century, the study of education along Herbartian lines….

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Johann Friedrich Herbart Facts

Johann Friedrich Herbart — is known today mainly as a founding figure of modern psychology and educational theory. But these were only parts of a much grander philosophical project, and it was as a philosopher of the first rank that his contemporaries saw him. In psychology and pedagogy, however, his influence was greater and longer lasting. While no one took over his philosophy or psychology and especially the impenetrable mathematics as a whole, certain aspects of his thought proved immensely fruitful. Indeed, without Herbart, the landscape of modern psychology and philosophy would be unrecognizable. Though his mathematization of the mind proved a dead end, it encouraged early experimentalists like Fechner to apply mathematics to the psyche. Finally, recent scholarship in both psychology and philosophy is rediscovering Herbart.


Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841)

German philosopher Johann Friedrich Herbart is the founder of the pedagogical theory that bears his name, which eventually laid the groundwork for teacher education as a university enterprise in the United States and elsewhere. Herbart was born in Oldenburg, Germany, the only child of a gifted and strong-willed mother and a father whose attention was devoted to his legal practice. Herbart was tutored at home until he entered the gymnasium at the age of twelve, from which he went on as valedictorian to the University of Jena at a time when such stellar German intellectuals as Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and Friedrich von Schiller were associated with that institution. In and almost against his will Herbart was persuaded by his mother to accept a position as tutor to the sons of the regional governor of Interlaken in Switzerland.


Johann Herbart (1776–1841)

Instructional Design Toolkit. ISD Concept Map. Herbart's system of philosophy stems from the analysis of experience. The system includes logic, metaphysics, and aesthetics as coordinate elements. He rejected all concepts of separate mental faculties, postulating instead that all mental phenomena result from interaction of elementary ideas. Herbart believed that educational methods and systems should be based on psychology and ethics: psychology to furnish necessary knowledge of the mind and ethics to be used as a basis for determining the social ends of education.


Johann Friedrich Herbart

Herbart is now remembered amongst the post-Kantian philosophers mostly as making the greatest contrast to Hegel —in particular in relation to aesthetics. Herbart was born on 4 May in Oldenburg. He continued his schooling at the Gymnasium for six years, and showed interest in philosophy, logic and Kant's work involving the nature of knowledge obtained from experience with reality. His education then continued at Jena , whereupon he studied philosophy and came to disagree with his teacher Fichte precisely because Fichte had taught him to think in a logical manner.

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