KNUTH LITERATE PROGRAMMING PDF

Literate programming is a programming paradigm introduced by Donald Knuth in which a computer program is given an explanation of its logic in a natural language , such as English, interspersed with snippets of macros and traditional source code , from which compilable source code can be generated. The literate programming paradigm, as conceived by Knuth, represents a move away from writing computer programs in the manner and order imposed by the computer, and instead enables programmers to develop programs in the order demanded by the logic and flow of their thoughts. Literate programming LP tools are used to obtain two representations from a literate source file: one suitable for further compilation or execution by a computer, the "tangled" code, and another for viewing as formatted documentation , which is said to be "woven" from the literate source. Literate programming was first introduced by Knuth in The main intention behind this approach was to treat a program as literature understandable to human beings. This approach was implemented at Stanford University as a part of research on algorithms and digital typography.

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This book is the first in a series of eight volumes that contain archival forms of my published papers, together with new material. Literate programming is a methodology that combines a programming language with a documentation language, thereby making programs more robust, more portable, more easily maintained, and arguably more fun to write than programs that are written only in a high-level language.

The main idea is to treat a program as a piece of literature, addressed to human beings rather than to a computer. The program is also viewed as a hypertext document, rather like the World Wide Web. This book is an anthology of essays including my early papers on related topics such as structured programming, as well as the article in The Computer Journal that launched Literate Programming itself. The articles have been revised, extended, and brought up to date. Numbers like P68 and Q78 in this list refer to the corresponding papers in my list of publications.

This book received the Productivity Award from Computer Language magazine, , awarded to products that significantly increase programmer productivity. Quick introduction to literate programming by Chris Lee. Errata For a list of corrections to errors in the first printing of this book, you may download either the errata file in plain TeX format bytes or the errata file in DVI format bytes or the errata file in compressed PostScript format bytes ; the latter files were generated by the TeX file, and last updated 12 Jun Most of the errors in the first two printings were corrected in the third printing, but several minor errors have been found by sharp-eyed readers of the fourth printing or the fifth printing or the sixth printing :.

Furthermore, several errors were unfortunately introduced on the cover of the printing: deer should be decr , and several other elements of the copy should be either italicized or taken out of italics. I hope the version is otherwise error-free. But sigh it probably isn't. Please send suggested corrections to knuth-bug cs. In either case please include your postal address, so that I can mail an official certificate of deposit as a token of thanks for any improvements to which you have contributed.

I may not be able to read your message until many months have gone by, because I'm working intensively on The Art of Computer Programming. However, I promise to reply in due time. And if you do report an error via email, please do not include attachments of any kind; your message should be readable on brand-X operating systems for all values of X.

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Learn To Program With Literate Programming

I believe that the time is ripe for significantly better documentation of programs, and that we can best achieve this by considering programs to be works of literature. Hence, my title: "Literate Programming. Let us change our traditional attitude to the construction of programs: Instead of imagining that our main task is to instruct a computer what to do, let us concentrate rather on explaining to human beings what we want a computer to do. The practitioner of literate programming can be regarded as an essayist, whose main concern is with exposition and excellence of style. Such an author, with thesaurus in hand, chooses the names of variables carefully and explains what each variable means. He or she strives for a program that is comprehensible because its concepts have been introduced in an order that is best for human understanding, using a mixture of formal and informal methods that reinforce each other.

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Literate programming

This book is the first in a series of eight volumes that contain archival forms of my published papers, together with new material. Literate programming is a methodology that combines a programming language with a documentation language, thereby making programs more robust, more portable, more easily maintained, and arguably more fun to write than programs that are written only in a high-level language. The main idea is to treat a program as a piece of literature, addressed to human beings rather than to a computer. The program is also viewed as a hypertext document, rather like the World Wide Web. This book is an anthology of essays including my early papers on related topics such as structured programming, as well as the article in The Computer Journal that launched Literate Programming itself. The articles have been revised, extended, and brought up to date.

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Literate programming is all about explaining how computer programs work at the same time as actually getting them to work. If you are the sort of person who likes explaining things to an audience, you will probably like literate programming. If not, you probably won't. Knuth introduced the ideas of literate programming in the early s through a pre-processible form of Pascal which he called WEB described in a famous paper published in The Computer Journal in Since then, the ideas has been adapted to many other programming languages, and even a language-independent idiom called noweb. The most comprehensive current reference is Daniel Mall's literate programming site.

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