KYRILLISCHES ALPHABET PDF

We are using the following form field to detect spammers. Please do leave them untouched. Otherwise your message will be regarded as spam. We are sorry for the inconvenience. Please note that the vocabulary items in this list are only available in this browser.

Author:Voodoogul Arashisar
Country:Tajikistan
Language:English (Spanish)
Genre:Video
Published (Last):13 February 2017
Pages:297
PDF File Size:5.65 Mb
ePub File Size:17.8 Mb
ISBN:487-2-37677-667-9
Downloads:93081
Price:Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader:JoJoshicage



In the 9th century AD the Bulgarian Tsar Simeon I the Great , following the cultural and political course of his father Boris I , commissioned a new script, the Early Cyrillic alphabet , to be made at the Preslav Literary School in the First Bulgarian Empire , which would replace the Glagolitic script , produced earlier by Saints Cyril and Methodius and the same disciples that created the new Slavic script in Bulgaria.

The usage of the Cyrillic script in Bulgaria was made official in As of [update] , around million people in Eurasia use it as the official alphabet for their national languages, with Russia accounting for about half of them.

Cyrillic is derived from the Greek uncial script , augmented by letters from the older Glagolitic alphabet , including some ligatures. These additional letters were used for Old Church Slavonic sounds not found in Greek. The script is named in honor of the two Byzantine brothers, [8] Saints Cyril and Methodius , who created the Glagolitic alphabet earlier on. Modern scholars believe that Cyrillic was developed and formalized by the early disciples of Cyril and Methodius, particularly by Clement of Ohrid.

In the early 18th century, the Cyrillic script used in Russia was heavily reformed by Peter the Great , who had recently returned from his Grand Embassy in Western Europe. The new letterforms, called the Civil script , became closer to those of the Latin alphabet; several archaic letters were abolished and several letters were designed by Peter himself. Letters became distinguished between upper and lower case.

West European typography culture was also adopted. Cyrillic script spread throughout the East Slavic and some South Slavic territories, being adopted for writing local languages, such as Old East Slavic.

Its adaptation to local languages produced a number of Cyrillic alphabets, discussed below. The letters also had numeric values, based not on Cyrillic alphabetical order, but inherited from the letters' Greek ancestors. The early Cyrillic alphabet is difficult to represent on computers. Many of the letterforms differed from those of modern Cyrillic, varied a great deal in manuscripts , and changed over time.

Few fonts include glyphs sufficient to reproduce the alphabet. In accordance with Unicode policy, the standard does not include letterform variations or ligatures found in manuscript sources unless they can be shown to conform to the Unicode definition of a character. The Unicode 5. In Microsoft Windows, the Segoe UI user interface font is notable for having complete support for the archaic Cyrillic letters since Windows 8.

The development of Cyrillic typography passed directly from the medieval stage to the late Baroque , without a Renaissance phase as in Western Europe. Late Medieval Cyrillic letters still found on many icon inscriptions today show a marked tendency to be very tall and narrow, with strokes often shared between adjacent letters.

Peter the Great , Tsar of Russia, mandated the use of westernized letter forms ru in the early 18th century. Over time, these were largely adopted in the other languages that use the script. Thus, unlike the majority of modern Greek fonts that retained their own set of design principles for lower-case letters such as the placement of serifs , the shapes of stroke ends, and stroke-thickness rules, although Greek capital letters do use Latin design principles , modern Cyrillic fonts are much the same as modern Latin fonts of the same font family.

The development of some Cyrillic computer typefaces from Latin ones has also contributed to the visual Latinization of Cyrillic type. Cyrillic uppercase and lowercase letter forms are not as differentiated as in Latin typography. Cyrillic fonts, as well as Latin ones, have roman and italic types practically all popular modern fonts include parallel sets of Latin and Cyrillic letters, where many glyphs, uppercase as well as lowercase, are simply shared by both.

However, the native font terminology in most Slavic languages for example, in Russian does not use the words "roman" and "italic" in this sense. As in Latin typography, a sans-serif face may have a mechanically sloped oblique type naklonniy shrift —"sloped", or "slanted type" instead of italic.

Similarly to Latin fonts, italic and cursive types of many Cyrillic letters typically lowercase; uppercase only for handwritten or stylish types are very different from their upright roman types. A boldfaced type is called poluzhirniy shrift "semi-bold type" , because there existed fully boldfaced shapes that have been out of use since the beginning of the 20th century.

A bold italic combination bold slanted does not exist for all font families. In Standard Serbian, as well as in Macedonian, [18] some italic and cursive letters are allowed to be different to resemble more to the handwritten letters.

The regular upright shapes are generally standardized among languages and there are no officially recognized variations. The following table shows the differences between the upright and italic Cyrillic letters of the Russian alphabet. Italic forms significantly different from their upright analogues, or especially confusing to users of a Latin alphabet, are highlighted. The first alphabet derived from Cyrillic was Abur , used for the Komi language.

Other Cyrillic alphabets include the Molodtsov alphabet for the Komi language and various alphabets for Caucasian languages. Since the script was conceived and popularised by the followers of Cyril and Methodius , rather than by Cyril and Methodius themselves, its name denotes homage rather than authorship. The name "Cyrillic" often confuses people who are not familiar with the script's history, because it does not identify a country of origin in contrast to the "Greek alphabet".

Among the general public, it is often called "the Russian alphabet," because Russian is the most popular and influential alphabet based on the script. Some Bulgarian intellectuals, notably Stefan Tsanev , have expressed concern over this, and have suggested that the Cyrillic script be called the "Bulgarian alphabet" instead, for the sake of historical accuracy.

In Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian and Slovak, the Cyrillic alphabet is also known as azbuka , derived from the old names of the first two letters of most Cyrillic alphabets just as the term alphabet came from the first two Greek letters alpha and beta.

In the Russian language syllabaries , especially the Japanese kana , are commonly referred to as 'syllabic azbukas' rather than 'syllabic scripts'. Egyptian hieroglyphs 32 c. The Cyrillic script was created in the First Bulgarian Empire.

It is derived from the Greek uncial script letters, augmented by ligatures and consonants from the older Glagolitic alphabet for sounds not found in Greek. Tradition holds that Cyrillic and Glagolitic were formalized either by Saints Cyril and Methodius who brought Christianity to the southern Slavs, or by their disciples. The Cyrillic script came to dominate Glagolitic in the 12th century. The literature produced in the Old Bulgarian language soon spread north and became the lingua franca of the Balkans and Eastern Europe, where it came to also be known as Old Church Slavonic.

However, over the course of the following millennium, Cyrillic adapted to changes in spoken language, developed regional variations to suit the features of national languages, and was subjected to academic reform and political decrees. Today, many languages in the Balkans , Eastern Europe, and northern Eurasia are written in Cyrillic alphabets. A number of languages written in a Cyrillic alphabet have also been written in a Latin alphabet , such as Azerbaijani , Uzbek , Serbian and Romanian in the Republic of Moldova until , in Romania throughout the 19th century.

After the disintegration of the Soviet Union in , some of the former republics officially shifted from Cyrillic to Latin. The transition is complete in most of Moldova except the breakaway region of Transnistria , where Moldovan Cyrillic is official , Turkmenistan , and Azerbaijan.

Uzbekistan still uses both systems, and Kazakhstan has officially begun a transition from Cyrillic to Latin scheduled to be complete by The Russian government has mandated that Cyrillic must be used for all public communications in all federal subjects of Russia , to promote closer ties across the federation.

For example, the separatist Chechen government mandated a Latin script which is still used by many Chechens. Those in the diaspora especially refuse to use the Chechen Cyrillic alphabet, which they associate with Russian imperialism.

Standard Serbian uses both the Cyrillic and Latin scripts. Cyrillic is nominally the official script of Serbia's administration according to the Serbian constitution; [33] however, the law does not regulate scripts in standard language, or standard language itself by any means.

In practice the scripts are equal, with Latin being used more often in a less official capacity. The Zhuang alphabet , used between the s and s in portions of the People's Republic of China, used a mixture of Latin, phonetic, numeral-based, and Cyrillic letters. The non-Latin letters, including Cyrillic, were removed from the alphabet in and replaced with Latin letters that closely resembled the letters they replaced.

There are various systems for Romanization of Cyrillic text, including transliteration to convey Cyrillic spelling in Latin letters, and transcription to convey pronunciation. Representing other writing systems with Cyrillic letters is called Cyrillization. As of Unicode version Some languages, including Church Slavonic , are still not fully supported.

Unicode 5. Other character encoding systems for Cyrillic:. Each language has its own standard keyboard layout , adopted from typewriters. When practical Cyrillic keyboard layouts or fonts are unavailable, computer users sometimes use transliteration or look-alike "volapuk" encoding to type in languages that are normally written with the Cyrillic alphabet.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Writing system used for various languages of Eurasia. For national variants of the Cyrillic script, see Cyrillic alphabets.

For other uses, see Cyrillic disambiguation. Alphabet impure and Bicameral. Latin alphabet Coptic alphabet Armenian alphabet. Unicode range. Top is set in Georgia font, bottom in Odessa Script. Main article: Cyrillic alphabets. Main article: Early Cyrillic alphabet. History of the alphabet. BCE Hieratic 32 c. BCE Demotic 7 c. BCE Meroitic 3 c. BCE Proto-Sinaitic 19 c.

BCE Ugaritic 15 c. BCE Phoenician 12 c. BCE Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE Samaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber 3 c. BCE Tifinagh Paleohispanic semi-syllabic 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Brahmic family see E. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari 10 c. CE Canadian syllabics Hebrew 3 c.

BERG JUDIT RUMINI PDF

Cyrillic script

Account Options Anmelden. Jedes Alter. Cyrillic teaches you the history and usage of the Russian Alphabet letting you learn Cyrillic at your own pace using easy-to-navigate lessons, quizzes, and flashcards. Our Reading Cyrillic lessons cover everything you need to learn to read Russian and our Writing lessons combined with flashcards and animations teach you everything you need to write Cyrillic as well. Wird geladen…. Bug fixes and new features. Details ansehen.

LORNA WING EL AUTISMO EN NIOS Y ADULTOS PDF

English-German Dictionary

.

Related Articles