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Besides identifying the gap in research pertaining to organizational climate, differences between organizational culture and organizational climate were identified too, as well as the dimensions, importance, practical implications and also research concerning organizational climate. If studies pertaining to organizational climate are done frequently, organizational climate will be better-understood. Moreover, keeping good employees is important to ensure business success.
Employees are retained because they are the most valuable assets in any organization, which ensures prosperity and success in the long run.
For this purpose, organizational climate is one of the organizational behavior concepts that have attracted increasing attention, theoretically and empirically. The focus of extensive studies concerning organizational climate can be traced back to the work of Lewin, Lippitt and White According to Simberova , organizational climate is characterized by relationships among people and organization and relations of super ordination and subordination.
He identified that organizational climate is determined by common influence of targets, formal structures, processes and behavior of people. It also describes the perception of employees regarding their organizations which would link to work attitude formation Litwin and Stringer, ; Pritchard and Karasick, Various definitions have been used to clarify the concept of organizational climate.
One of the earlier definitions of organizational climate was from Forehand and Gilmer One of the most extensively mentioned definitions of organizational climate is that of Litwin and Stringer Hellriegel and Slocum used a psychological definition of organizational climate which addresses the issue of interpretation. They regard organizational climate as a collection of perceived traits of a specific organization.
The traits are found to be generated from the way an organization deals with their members and environment. Generally, organizational climate can be defined as employees' personal views of the work setting and these views can lead to emotional reactions and consequently influences employees' behavior Poon and Ainuddin, Whereas, organizational climate mainly focuses on attitudes and behaviors, which is a compilation of understandings of members concerning organization.
Both concepts consist of dissimilar meanings even though they are in a way associated with each other. A number of studies have attempted to discover the specific factors in the work setting, which seems to affect the organizational climate. In a review of four studies, Campbell, Dunnette, Lawler and Weick found four dimensions consisting of: 1 individual autonomy, 2 degree of structure imposed on the position, 3 reward orientation and 4 consideration, warm and support.
While, Litwin and Stringer , through their study identified nine climate dimensions, which includes: 1 structure, 2 responsibility, 3 reward, 4 risk, 5 warm, 6 support, 7 standard, 8 conflict and 9 identity. Jones and James and James and James developed one of the most well- known organizational climate dimensions, which includes: 1 work facilitation, 2 goal emphasis, 3 opportunities for growth and advancement and 4 professional esprit de corps.
Some of these dimensions were changed to a certain extent by subsequent researchers. They also introduced a new dimension termed employee socialization. According to Poon and Ainuddin , there is still large variety in the number and type of dimensions used to clarify the climate construct. It is a challenge to theorize organizational climate because organizational climate comprises employees' perceptions of their work environments Muchinsky, Moreover, different types of organizations with their differing practices and procedures will have relatively unique climates.
Therefore, it is difficult to identify several core climate dimensions that are applicable to various organizations Muchinsky, Importance of Organizational Climate Organizational climate is extremely important for the achievement of organizational objectives, as it causes differences in the effectiveness of every organization Gul, Besides that, it also provides an understanding on how the different management styles affect members of organization.
An organizational climate that prompts creativity would be able to reduce the tendency of resigning a job and boredom.
As a result, organizational climate will turn out to be further attractive for the employees. Consequently this will reduce the tendency of resigning a job. Implications for Practice Organizational climate can become beneficial to increase capability and competencies of employees towards goal achievements.
Bellou and Andronikidis posited that there is a need for a higher responsibility of regional managers who should feel responsible for developing a positive and motivating work culture. Consequently, this would guarantee best utilization of the capabilities of team members Bellou and Andronikidis, Besides that, it is important for managers in the organization to develop trust and unity among organizational members through training and human resource development as organizational climate involves both: the entire organization and each employee within it Rogg, Schmidt, Shull, and Schmitt, In addition, managers also need to preserve employee loyalty, cooperation and trust.
Thus, this will lead to employee and organizational effectiveness. Organizations turnover rate can be reduced by improving the organizational climate. According to Liew and Kaur , organizations should remove unnecessary rules and procedures that are ineffective and burdensome, in order to reduce employee turnover rates.
They posited that high-performance employees should be allowed to make decisions. As a result, employees should be provided with activities such as broad-skill training, organize mentoring programs and succession planning. All these activities would motivate good employees to stay as it enhances the promotion from within opportunities and offers employees a greater sense of connection to the organizations Liew and Kaur, Meanwhile, Liew and Kaur also identified that organizations should practice reasonable and equitable performance-based rewards system.
In other words, employees should be paid based on what they are worth and not what the organization guidelines command. Therefore, they posit that management team needs to be alert to understand the characteristics of employees they have and make relevant changes and customize policies and systems accordingly.
As a result, organizational climate would also be strengthened as well. In addition, Idogho identified another factor of organizational climate to promote good human relations and interactions, which is communication. A smooth network of communication should be systematically built in, to eliminate all areas of tension and bottlenecks. This is due to the reason that information withheld or unclear communication can stimulate conflict Idogho, Most research focuses on deep and thorough analysis of organizational climate in a large- sized enterprise in relation with in-company training.
According to Glick , studies on organizational climate were found to be complicated and multifaceted. For instance, numerous climates can occur within an organization at any one time. Consequently, these will lead to the complicatedness of studies on organizational climate Koys and DeCotiis, As climate relates to the overall organization, preliminary literature concerning organizational climate focused on exploring a wide range of employees Payne and Mansfield, ; Payne and Pheysey, Some researchers have included both managerial and non-managerial employees in their studies Bellou and Andronikidis, ; Johnson, ; Patterson, Warr and West, Nevertheless, these studies were found to have inconsistent results.
On the contrary, Patterson et al. Recently, during a study conducted by Bellou and Andronikidis with employees in 24 Greek hotels, they identified that the only difference revealed between managerial and non- managerial employees were in the areas of involvement and efficiency. Gap in Research Pertaining to Organizational Climate There are presently a number of gaps in research on organization climate. For instance, there is relatively limited literature concerning inquiries on the uniqueness or the redundancy of the concept of organizational climate with regards to leadership style.
Since a leader sets the tone for an organization, it has been argued that leadership style should be considered equal with organizational climate Al-Shammari, Moreover, it has been described that leadership effects innovation and organizational climate or vise versa.
The importance of research concerning appropriate leadership style to effect innovation and organizational climate has been acknowledged Bass, ; Brown, ; Kotter and Heskett, ; Schein, ; Zahra, It has been indicated that innovation is dependant on leadership, which in turn is affected by the organizational climate of a corporation Jaskyte, Thus, innovation is identified to be important for organizational survival Parry and Proctor-Thomson, However, there has been little attention on the relationship between the key components of leadership, organizational climate and innovation.
Moreover, it might mediate the relationship between mean climate ratings and a variety of individual and organizational outcomes Lindell and Brandt, According to Lindell and Brandt and also Schneider et al. These differences were found to provide information concerning the strength of organizational climate. Only few studies have explored the predictors of climate strength. Thus, further research is required to provide a greater understanding of the factors that might assist the growth of strong climates.
The review of literature to this point found that only few studies on organizational climate were conducted in the Malaysian context.
For instance, Poon and Ainuddin studied the relationship between perceived organisational climate and job satisfaction and also performance in Malaysian manufacturing companies. Additionally, Nasurdin, Ramayah and Yeoh studied the effects of organizational structure formalization and centralization and organizational climate on job stress among Malaysian sales personnel within the stock broking industry.
Recently, Liew and Kaur studied the relationship between organizational climate, employee personality and their intention to leave an organization among working adults in Malaysia.
Thus, there is a need for further research to compare the organizational climate across different occupations and sectors. This is important as the existing findings on organizational climate in Malaysia cannot be generalized to other job incumbents working in other industries.
If studies pertaining to organizational climate are done frequently, the organizational climate will be better-understood. Consequently, this will, in turn assist the description of problems and their solutions. Keeping good employees is important to ensure business success. Organizations should make employee retention as part of their corporate culture. References Al-Shammari, M. Organizational climate. Bass, B.
Mahwah, N. Bellou, V. Examining organizational climate in Greek hotels from a service quality perspective. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 21 3 , Organisational culture: The key to effective leadership and organisational development. Leadership and Development Journal, 13 2 , Burke, R.
The Corporate Climate Questionnaire
The aim of this research was to develop a robust, multi-dimensional, fully psychometrised questionnaire able to be used in a wide variety of organisations and various different countries for both descriptive and predictive purposes. Presently available categorical and dimensional questionnaire measures were described and evaluated and a brief but critical review of the organisational climate literature executed. A study is described in which two population groups, over British employees and over European employees at all levels, doing a variety of jobs in a large multi-national transportation company, completed a item multi-dimensional questionnaire which required them to rate each question on two scales - performance and importance. The potential application of this measure to other occupational settings was discussed, along with its potential use in international analysis. However, the concept proved ambiguous, nebulous and controversial. Hence Guion argued that a perceived climate concerned both the attributes of an organisation and those of the perceiving individual and that as most often conceived climate was simply an alternative label for affective responses to organisation, like job satisfaction.
The Corporate Climate Questionnaire