LUCKNOW PACT 1916 PDF

The Congress, in the same year, held its 28 th session at Bombay. Jinnah and Wazir Khan, the nationalist members of the League, ensured that the annual sessions of the Congress and the League happened at the same time and place Bombay, and organised a joint meeting between both parties. They jointly appointed committees for this purpose; the committees met in Lucknow and Calcutta prepared a scheme of reforms. The document was organised around seven parts; four dealt with the composition and functioning of the legislature and executive at the provincial and federal levels. The document proposed separate electorates and proportional representation for minorities, especially Muslims, at the provincial and federal legislatures.

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The Congress, in the same year, held its 28 th session at Bombay. Jinnah and Wazir Khan, the nationalist members of the League, ensured that the annual sessions of the Congress and the League happened at the same time and place Bombay, and organised a joint meeting between both parties. They jointly appointed committees for this purpose; the committees met in Lucknow and Calcutta prepared a scheme of reforms.

The document was organised around seven parts; four dealt with the composition and functioning of the legislature and executive at the provincial and federal levels. The document proposed separate electorates and proportional representation for minorities, especially Muslims, at the provincial and federal legislatures. Other notable aspects of the document included: calls for equality with other British dominions, the abolishing of the Council of the Secretary of State and the ban on members of the Indian Civil Service from occupying political positions in government.

While the document did garner attention, it did not manage to persuade the British in introducing self-government. The British claimed this Act introduced self-government - leaders of the freedom movement disagreed. There shall be not less than members in the major Provinces, and from 50 to 75 in the minor provinces.

The members of Councils should be elected by the people on as broad a franchise as possible. Punjab ……………One-half the elected members. United Provinces….

Bengal ……………. Central Provinces….. One-third the elected members. Provided that no Mohamedan shall participate in any of the other elections to the Imperial or Provincial Legislative Councils, save and except those by electorates representing special interests:. The head of the Provincial Government should not be the President of the Legislative Council but the Council should have the right of electing its President.

The right of asking supplementary questions should not be restricted to the member putting the original question but should be allowed to be exercised by any other member. All items of expenditure, and all proposals concerning ways and means of raising the necessary revenue, should be embodied in Bills and submitted to the Provincial Council for adoption. A special meeting of the Provincial Council may be summoned on requisition by not less than one-eighth of the members. A Bill, other than a Money Bill, may be introduced in Council in accordance with rules made in that behalf by the Council itself and the consent of the Government should not be required therefor.

All Bills passed by Provincial Legislatures shall have to receive the assent of the Governor before they become law, but may be vetoed by the Governor-General. The head of every Provincial Government shall be a Governor who shall not ordinarily belong to the Indian Civil Service or any of the permanent services. There shall be in every Province an Executive Council which, with the Governor, shall constitute the Executive Government of the Province. Not less than one-half of the members of the Executive Council shall consist of Indians to be elected by the elected members of the Provincial Legislative Council.

The strength of the Imperial Legislative Council shall be The franchise for the Imperial Legislative Council should be widened as far its possible on the lines of electorates for Mohammedans for the Provincial Legislative Councils, and the elected members of the Provincial Legislative Councils should also form an electorate for the return of members to the Imperial Legislative Council.

One-third of the Indian elected members should be Mohammedan, elected by separate Mohammedan electorates in the several Provinces, in the proportion, as nearly as may be, in which they are represented in the Provincial Legislative Councils by separate Mohammedan electorates vide proviso to section 1, clause 4.

The President of the Council shall be elected by the Council itself. The right of asking supplementary questions shall not be restricted to the member putting the original question but should be allowed to be exercised by any other member.

A special meeting of the Council may be summoned on a requisition by not less than one-eighth of the members. A Bill, other than a Money Bill, may be introduced in Council in accordance with rules made in that behalf by the Council itself, and the Consent of the Executive Government should not be required therefor.

All Bills passed by the Council shall have to receive the assent of the Governor-General before they become law. The matters mentioned herein below shall be exclusively under the control of the Imperial Legislative Council. A Resolution passed by the Legislative Council should be binding on the Executive Government, unless vetoed by the Governor-General in Council; provided however that if the resolution is again passed by the Council after an interval of not less than one year, it must be given effect to.

A motion for adjournment may be brought forward for discussion of a definite matter of urgent public importance, if supported by not less than one-eighth of the members present. When the Crown chooses to exercise its power of veto in regard to a Bill passed by a Provincial Legislative Council, or by the Imperial Legislative Council, it should be exercised within twelve months from the date on which it is passed and the Bill shall cease to have effect as from the date on which the fact of such veto is made known to the Legislative Council concerned.

He will have an Executive Council, half of whom shall be Indians. The Indian members should be elected by the elected members of the Imperial Legislative Council. The power of making appointments with Imperial Civil Services shall vest in the Government of India; as constituted under this scheme, due regard being paid to existing interests, subject to any laws that may be made bv the Imperial Legislative Council.

The Government of India shall not ordinarily interfere in the local affairs of a province, and powers not specially given to Provincial Governments, shall be deemed to be vested in the former.

The authority of the Government of India will ordinarily be limited to general supervision and superintendence over the Provincial Governments. In legislative and administrative matters the Government of India as constituted under this scheme, shall as far as possible, be independent of the Secretary of State.

The Council of the Secretary of State for India should be abolished. The salary of the Secretary of State should be placed in British Estimates. The Secretary of State should, as far as possible, occupy the same position in relation to the Government of India, as the Secretary of State for the Colonies does in relation to the Governments of self-governing Dominions..

The Secretary of State of India should be assisted by the two permanent Under-Secretaries, one of whom should always be an Indian.

In any Council or other body which may be constituted or convened for the settlement or control of Imperial affairs, India shall be adequately represented in like manner with the Dominions and with equal rights. Indians should be placed on a footing of equality in respect of status and rights of citizenship with other subjects of His Majesty the King throughout the Empire. The military and naval services of His Majesty both in their commissioned and non-commissioned ranks, should be thrown open to Indians and adequate provision should be made for their selection, training and instruction in India.

Indians should be allowed to enlist as volunteers. Executive officers in India shall have no judicial powers entrusted to them and the judiciary in every province shall be placed under the highest court of that province. Indian Councils Act, Government of India Act,

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Lucknow Pact of 1916

Self-rule for India brought the Muslim league and the Congress closer to each other. The leaders of the both parties agreed that they should cooperate with each other to make the British accept their demands. They acknowledged that the objectives can be achieved if the two major communities of India forget their differences on petty issues and come closer to each other to see eye to eye on the important national issues. The political vicinity had taken a happy turn and ground for cherished Hindu Muslim unity had been smoothed.

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Lucknow Pact

The meeting at Lucknow marked the reunion of the moderate and radical wings of the Congress. The pact dealt both with the structure of the government of India and with the relation of the Hindu and Muslim communities. Except for the provision for the central executive, these proposals were largely embodied in the Government of India Act of The Congress also agreed to separate electorates for Muslims in provincial council elections and for weightage in their favour beyond the proportions indicated by population in all provinces except the Punjab and Bengal, where they gave some ground to the Hindu and Sikh minorities.

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