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This article will be permanently flagged as inappropriate and made unaccessible to everyone. Are you certain this article is inappropriate? Email Address:. The word "siddur" comes from a Hebrew root meaning "order". A set of eighteen currently nineteen blessings called the Shemoneh Esreh or the Amidah Hebrew , "standing [prayer]" , is traditionally ascribed to the Great Assembly in the time of Ezra , at the end of the Biblical period.
The name Shemoneh Esreh , literally "eighteen", is an historical anachronism, since it now contains nineteen blessings. It was only near the end of the Second Temple period that the eighteen prayers of the weekday Amidah became standardized.
Even at that time their precise wording and order was not yet fixed, and varied from locale to locale. Many modern scholars believe that parts of the Amidah came from the Hebrew apocryphal work Ben Sira. According to the Talmud , soon after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem a formal version of the Amidah was adopted at a rabbinical council in Yavne , under the leadership of Rabban Gamaliel II and his colleagues. However, the precise wording was still left open. The order, general ideas, opening and closing lines were fixed.
Most of the wording was left to the individual reader. It was not until several centuries later that the prayers began to be formally fixed. By the Middle Ages the texts of the prayers were nearly fixed, and in the form in which they are still used today. The siddur was printed by Soncino in Italy as early as , though a siddur was first mass-distributed only in The siddur began appearing in the vernacular as early as The first - unauthorized - English translation , by Gamaliel ben Pedahzur a pseudonym , appeared in London in ; a different translation was released in the United States in Readings from the Torah five books of Moses and the Nevi'im "Prophets" form part of the prayer services.
To this framework various Jewish sages added, from time to time, various prayers, and, for festivals especially, numerous hymns. Half a century later Rav Saadia Gaon , also of Sura, composed a siddur, in which the rubrical matter is in Arabic. These were the basis of Simcha ben Samuel's Machzor Vitry 11th century France , which was based on the ideas of his teacher, Rashi.
Another formulation of the prayers was that appended by Maimonides to the laws of prayer in his Mishneh Torah : this forms the basis of the Yemenite liturgy, and has had some influence on other rites. From this point forward all Jewish prayerbooks had the same basic order and contents. Two authoritative versions of the Ashkenazi siddur were those of Shabbetai Sofer in the 16th century and Seligman Baer in the 19th century; siddurim have also been published reflecting the views of Jacob Emden and the Vilna Gaon.
In some cases, however, the order of the preparation for the Amidah is drastically different, reflecting the different halakhic and kabbalistic formulae that the various scholars relied on in assembling their siddurim, as well as the minhagim, or customs, or their locales. Some forms of the Sephardi rite are considered to be very overtly kabbalistic , depending on how far they reflect the ritual of Isaac Luria. In some editions, there is a Psalm in the preparations for the Amidah that is printed in the outline of a menorah , and the worshipper meditates on this shape as he recites the psalm.
The Ashkenazi rite is more common than the Sephardi rite in America. While Nusach Ashkenaz does contain some kabbalistic elements, such as acrostics and allusions to the sefirot "To You, God, is the greatness [gedullah], and the might [gevurah], and the glory [tiferet], longevity [netzach], It is notable that although many other traditions avoid using the poem Anim Zemiroth on the Sabbath, for fear that its holiness would be less appreciated due to the frequency of the Sabbath, the poem is usually sung by Ashkenazi congregations before concluding the Sabbath Musaf service with the daily psalm.
The ark is opened for the duration of the song. Hasidim, though usually ethnically Ashkenazi, usually use liturgies with varying degrees of Sephardic influence, such as Nusach Sefard and Nusach Ari , in order to follow the order of the prayers set by Rabbi Isaac Luria , often called "Ari HaKadosh", or "The Holy Lion". Although the Ari himself was born Ashkenazi, he borrowed many elements from Sephardi and other traditions, since he felt that they followed Kabbalah and Halacha more faithfully.
The Ari did not publish any siddur, but orally transmitted his particular usages to his students with interpretations and certain meditations. In , Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi compiled an authoritative siddur from the sixty siddurim that he checked for compliance with Hebrew grammar, Jewish law, and Kabbalah: this is what is known today as the "Nusach Ari", and is used by Lubavitch Hasidim. Those that use Nusach HaAri claim that it is an all-encompassing nusach that is valid for any Jew, no matter what his ancestral tribe or identity, a view attributed to the Maggid of Mezeritch.
The Mahzor of each rite is distinguished by hymns piyyutim composed by authors payyetanim. In the case of Nusach HaAri, however, many of these High Holiday piyyutim are absent: the older piyyutim were not present in the Sephardic rite, on which Nusach HaAri was based, and the followers of the Ari removed the piyyutim composed by the Spanish school. Some siddurim have only prayers for weekdays; others have prayers for weekdays and Shabbat Jewish Sabbath.
Many have prayers for weekdays, Shabbat, and the three Biblical festivals, Sukkot the feast of Tabernacles , Shavuot the feast of weeks and Pesach Passover. The latter are referred to as a Siddur Shalem "complete siddur". Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur. As such, a special siddur has developed for just this period, known as a mahzor also: machzor. The mahzor contains not only the basic liturgy, but also many piyutim , Hebrew liturgical poems.
Sometimes the term mahzor is also used for the prayer books for the three pilgrim festivals, Pesach, Shavuot and Sukkot. Characterised by relative absence of Kabbalistic elements:. Usually characterised by presence of Kabbalistic elements:. These siddurim follow the halakha of Rabbi Ovadia Yosef —  a Talmudic scholar, an authority on Jewish religious law, and spiritual leader of Israel's ultra-orthodox Shas party.
Yosef served as the Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel from to Yosef's responsa were highly regarded within Haredi circles, particularly among Mizrahi communities, among whom he was regarded as "the most important living halakhic authority. Yosef saw this as one of the distinguishing characteristics of the Sephardic approach to Halakha compared to the Ashkenazi approach.
In one of his rulings, he quoted Rabbi Chaim Joseph David Azulai as saying: "The Sephardim are characterized by the quality of kindness and therefore are lenient in the Halakha, and the Ashkenazim are characterized by the quality of power  and therefore they rule strictly. The Baladi Jews from Arabic balad , country follow the legal rulings of the Rambam Maimonides as codified in his work the Mishneh Torah. This siddur makes very few additions or changes and substantially follows the older Yemenite tradition as it had existed prior to this conflict.
The Shami Jews from Arabic ash-Sham , the north, referring to Palestine or Damascus represent those who accepted the Sephardic rite, after being exposed to new inexpensive, typeset siddurs brought from Israel and the Sephardic diaspora by envoys and merchants in the late 17th century and 18th century. Nevertheless, the new prayer books were widely accepted. The text of the Shami siddur now largely follows the Sephardic tradition, though the pronunciation, chant and customs are still Yemenite in flavour.
My Dashboard Get Published. Sign in with your eLibrary Card close. Flag as Inappropriate. Email this Article. Nusach Ashkenaz Siddur prayer book from Irkutsk , Russia, printed in Variety of popular Siddurim. Kol Haneshamah: Shabbat Vehagim. Retrieved Jews and Judaism. Outline of Judaism. Religious movements. Hoffman Aryeh Kaplan. Who is a Jew? Religious articles and prayers. Interactions with other religions. Category Portal. Categories Articles containing Hebrew-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from August Siddur Hebrew literature Hebrew words and phrases Jewish behaviour and experience Jewish belief and doctrine Jewish law and rituals Jewish literature Jewish observances Jewish prayer books Jewish prayer and ritual texts Jewish ritual objects Jewish services Jewish texts Jewish theology Judaism terminology Prayer Prayer books Ritual Synagogues Worship.
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PDF Rituel de priÃ¨res Patah Eliyahou : Rite sÃ©pharade (Patah-Eliyahou) Download
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PDF Rituel de priÃ¨res Patah Eliyahou : Rite sÃ©pharade (Patah-Eliyahou) Download
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List of Sephardic prayer books
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