Marginal notes refer to various biblical manuscripts and Bible translations. Various appendices provide information about the Greek alphabet and prepositions, maps of Palestine in the first century, and information about editorial decisions relating to the text of the New World Translation. A characteristic of this translation is that the name Jehovah was inserted in the citations to the Hebrew scriptures in which the tetragrammaton is found. Thomas Winter, an instructor of Greek at the University of Nebraska and former president of the Unitarian Church of Lincoln, considered The Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures to be a "highly useful aid toward the mastery of koine and classical Greek": . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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F,Westcott and F. The Christian Greek Scriptures, completed near t h e end of the Brst century of our Common Era, are an indispensable part of the Sacred Scriptures inspired by the Creator of heaven and earth. In fact, the original Greek Scriptures give us t h e key to the proper understanding of the Arst and larger part of t h e Holy Bible, that is, the inspired Hebrew Scriptures, commonly called "The Old Testament. The inspired Greek Scriptures were written in 1coi.
Sincere searchers for eternal, life-giving truth desire a n accurate understanding of t h e faith-inspiring Greek Scriptures, an understanding that is fortified by the knowledge of what the original language says and means. The purpose behind the publishing of The Kingdom interlinear Translation of the Greek S n i p t u r e s is to aid such seekers of truth and life.
I t s literal interlinear English translation is specially designed to open up to the student of the Sacred Scriptures what the original koi. In t h e broad left-hand column of the pages will be found t h e Greek text edited by B.
Westcott and F. Hort, and published in Between the lines of the Greek text will be found the word-for-word English translation of In the narrower right-hand column of the pages will be found t h e 20th-century language New World Translation of the Holy Sniptures, Matthew t o Revelation, in its revision. The word-for-word interlinear translation and the New World TranslatZon are arranged in parallel on the page, so that comparisons can be made between t h e two readings.
Thus, the accuracy of any modern transiation can be determined. The interllncnr word. So in many cases the readme in the English word-for-word interlinear translation is not the same. This helps one to determine what the Greek text nrtuaily, hasirall ' says. In uslng these Interlinear readings, one will And a greater demand for scrutiny than when reading the. Yet ic d:. These denote that the English word or words enclosed are implied in the meaning of the Greek word above, according to i t s gender, number, antecedents, or relation to context.
These denote that the word or words enclosed have been inserted by the translators to make some application that is shown by the Greek word or to show something that is understood along with the Greek word because of its grammatical form. For example, the Greek definite article for "the" may be used just by itself to denote a person. But this article may be in the feminine gender, and according to the context it applies to a woman.
Accordingly, for the enlightenment of the reader who is not familiar with Greek, the word "woman" is inserted enclosed in brackets in the Enrlish reading. These enclose matter that coeditors Westcott and Hort considered to be interpolations. Westcott and Hort. Also, where the plural number of a verb is not apparent, its plurality is indicated by printing it in small capital letters.
If the context already clearly indicates plurality, then no special capitalization is used. These footnotes use symbols that are explained in the section entitled "Expla No translation of these sacred writings into another language, except by the original writers, is inspired. I n copying the inspired originals by hand, the element of human frailty entered in, and so none of the thousands of copies in existence today in the original language are perfect duplicates.
The result is that no two copies are exactly alike. Since this is the case with handwritten copies of the Scriptures, it is to be expected that no translation of them could be perfect. It could not accurately render the precise meaning of the inspired originals. Especially so when the translation is made from an imperfect copy.. From this fact arises the need for a fresh translation from time to time, as better understanding of the original languages, now dead, becomes possible and as the light of the truth on the inspired Scriptures becomes brighter.
From the time of the Roman Catholic clergyman John Wycliffe, of the 14th century, until the final decades of this 20th century, many English translations of the inspired writings of Christ's disciples have been made. All of these have had their own commendable features. They have considerably met the needs of the day for a rendering of God's Word into the common language of the people.
Much good has been accomplished by them and will yet be. However, it is t o be noted that, while each of them has its points of merit, they have fallen victim to the power of religious traditions in varying degrees.
Consequently, religious traditions, hoary with age, have been taken for granted and gone unchallenged and uninvestigated. These have been interwoven into the translations to color the thought. I n support of a preferred religious view, inconsistency and unreasonable-. The Son of God taught that the traditions of creed-bound men made the commandments and teachings of God to be without power or effect. The endeavor of the New World Bible Translation Committee has been to avoid this snare of religious traditionalism.
This very effort distinguishes this work as a translation of the "Christian Greek Scriptures. No uninspired translator or committee of translators can claim any direct command from the Most High God to engage in translating the divine Word into another language. But translation of i t is necessary, and that into many languages, if Christ's command for this momentous day is to be fulfilled: "This good news of the kingdom will be preached in all the inhabited earth for a witness to all the nations; and then the end will come.
In presenting this translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures, our confidence has been in the help of the great Author of The Book. Our primary desire has been to seek not the approval of men but that of God, by rendering the truth of his inspired Word as purely and as consistently as our dedicated abilities make possible. There is no benefit in self-deception. More than that, those who provide a translation for the spiritual instruction of others come under a special responsibility as teachers before the Divine Judge.
Hence, we are aware of the need to be careful. Westcott and Hort text , by reason of its acknowledged excellence. We have disposed of archaic language altogether, even in prayers and addresses to God. This means we have dropped using the now-sanctimonious formal pronouns thou, thy, thine, thee, and ye, with their corresponding verb infiections. The original Bible was written in the living languages of the people of the day, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek; and so the Bible characters addressed God and prayed to him in the same everyday language that they employed in speaking to their fellow creatures on earth.
The translation of the Scriptures into a modern language should be rendered in the same style, in the speech forms current among the people.
We offer no paraphrase of the Scriptures. Our endeavor throughout has been to give as literal a translation as possible where t h e modern English idiom allows for it or where t h e thought content is not hidden due to any awkwardness in the literal rendition.
In this way, we can best meet the desire of those who are scrupulous for getting, as nearly as possible word for word, the exact statement of the original. We realize that sometimes t h e use of so small a thing as the definite or indefinite article or the omission of such may alter the correct sense of the original passage. Besides using the Macmillan Company edition of this t e x t , we have availed ourselves of the twp exhaustive volumes on Matthew and Mark, prepared under the supervlslon of S.
Legg, A. EberhardNestle, elaborated b y D. Bover, S. Close watch has been kept against taking liberties with texts merely for the sake of brevity or shortcuts and against substitution of a modern parallel where the rendering of the original idea makes good sense. To each major word we have assigned one meaning and have held to that meaning as far as the context permitted. This, indeed, has imposed a restriction upon our diction, yet it makes for good crossreference work and for a more reliable comparison of related texts or verses.
At the same time, in order t o bring out the richness and variety of the language of the inspired writers, we have avoided the rendering of two or more Greek words by the same English word, for this hides the distinction iv shade of meaning between the several words thus rendered. Attention has been given to the tenses of verbs to bring out the intended description of the action, position, or state.
As the reader becomes familiar with our translation he will discern more and more the harmony and interagreement of our renderings in all these respects.
But, instead of making each verse a separate paragraph in itself, we have grouped verses into paragraphs for the p r o p er development of a complete thought in a l l its context. Mindful of the Hebrew background of the Christian Greek Scriptures, we have followed mainly the Hebrew spelling of the names of persons and places, rather than that of the Greek text, which imitates the Greek Septuagint translation LXX of the Hebrew Scriptures. See App In. Sometime during the second or third centuries C.
I s he justified or authorized in entering the divine name, Jehovah, into a translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures? Every comprehensive Greek-English dictionary states that these two Greek words have been used as equivalents of the divine name. Throughout the centuries many translations of parts or of all the Christian Greek Scriptures have been made into 7 ' Hebrew. Such translations, designated in this work by " with a superior number, have restored the divine name to the Christian Greek Scriptures in various places.
They have restored the divine name not only when coming upon quotations from the Hebrew Scriptures but also in other places where the texts called for such restoration. How may modern translators determine when to render the Greek words Ky'ri. By determining where the inspired Christian writers have quoted from the Hebrew Scriptures. Parkhurst, revised ed. In LXX it answers to the several names or titles of Gad,. Thayer, ed. Yahweh, L m Ce. I n this way they can determine the Identity to be given t o K9'ri.
To avoid overstepping the bounds of a translator into the Aeld of exegesis, we have tried to be most cautious about rendering the divine name, always carefully considering the Hebrew Scriptures as a background. We have looked for some agreement with us by the Hebrew versions we consulted to conflrm our rendering. Thus, out of the times that we have restored Jehovah's name in the body of our translation, there is only one instance wherein we have no support or agreement from any of the Hebrew versions.
But in this one instance, namely, at 1Corinthians , the context and related texts strongly support restoring the divine name. While many are inclined to view the pronunciation "Yahweh" as the more correct way, we have retained the form "Jehovah" because of people's familiarity with it for centuries.
We shall be grateful if it guides many t o right Scriptural understanding and action a t this critical t i e when "everyone who calls on the name of Jehovah will be saved. Following i s a c h a r t of t h e major symbols t h a t a r e referenced in t h e footnotes of this publication.
Codex Sinaiticus, Gr. Codex Alexandrinus, Gr. Armenian Version, fourth to thirteenth cent.
ISBN 13: 9789996806414
Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures (1985)
The Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures