The other species, B. The cultivated hybrids have produced a considerable variety in size, color, form and numbers of showy bracts. The genus attributes its name to Antoiine de Bougainville, first Frenchman to cross the Pacific. Botany Bogambilya is a woody climber that can grow to a height of more than 10 meters, with large thorny stems and long drooping branches.

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File information. Structured data. Captions English Add a one-line explanation of what this file represents. Spanish Bugambilia, Planta medicinal.

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Medicinal Plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Used as Immunostimulants

Bougainvillea spectabilis , also known as great bougainvillea , [1] is a species of flowering plant. Bougainvillea spectabilis grows as a woody vine or shrub, reaching 15 to 40 feet 4. The bracts can vary in color, ranging from white, red, mauve, purple-red, or orange. Its fruit is a small, inconspicuous, dry, elongated achene. Bougainvillea spectabilis is native to Brazil , Peru , Bolivia , and Chubut Province , Argentina, but it has been introduced in many other areas.


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The causes are varied; in fact, any situation that alters the emotional state or mood is interpreted as a possible triggering agent. The therapies are designed to reassure health, i. For this propose, the oral administration of plants infusions is common. The most studied plant is Galphimia glauca Cav. These species could be a potential source of compounds with activity in the central nervous system. Synonyms are: "alteration of nerves, nerves, and nervousness". Any circumstances that alter the emotional state or mood are interpreted as possible triggering agents" Zolla,


Medicinal plants used as immunostimulants were classified into two categories: 1 plants with pharmacological studies and 2 plants without pharmacological research. Medicinal plants with pharmacological studies of their immunostimulatory properties were subclassified into four groups as follows: a plant extracts evaluated for in vitro effects, b plant extracts with documented in vivo effects, c active compounds tested on in vitro studies, and d active compounds assayed in animal models. Pharmacological studies have been conducted on 29 of the plants, including extracts and compounds, whereas 75 plants lack pharmacological studies regarding their immunostimulatory activity. Medicinal plants were experimentally studied in vitro 19 plants and in vivo 8 plants. A total of 12 compounds isolated from medicinal plants used as immunostimulants have been tested using in vitro 11 compounds and in vivo 2 compounds assays. This review clearly indicates the need to perform scientific studies with medicinal flora from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, to obtain new immunostimulatory agents.


This review discusses the current knowledge of the phytochemistry and in vitro and in vivo evaluations carried out using the extracts and, where appropriate, the main active components isolated from the genus Bougainvillea. Out of 18 species, most phytochemical, pharmacological, and toxicological studies focused on four species with different cultivars and one hybrid. Some plants are used for the treatment of various health disorders. Numerous phytochemical investigations of plants in this genus confirm the presence of aliphatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, volatile compounds, phenolic compounds, peltogynoids, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenes, carbohydrates, and betalains. Various studies have confirmed that these extracts or active substances that were isolated from the genus Bougainvillea have multiple pharmacological activities.

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